Rochelle's interest in California history was rekindled when she began leading tours at a local museum in an 1850s gold rush town.
Of the 21 California missions built over 200 years ago by Spanish explorers and missionaries, San Juan Bautista is one of the best preserved. It is fifteenth in the chain started by Father Junipero Serra of the Franciscan order, but it was established by his successor Fr. Fermin de Lausen in 1797.
Though it is still an active place of worship, the sanctuary, surrounding buildings and historic town structures are part of one of California's State Park sites with historic significance.
The church itself is a tall and impressive structure with many arched walls and three aisles or naves. It is the widest California mission church. In fact, it is the largest of all churches in the state's mission chain at a whopping 188 feet long, 72 feet wide, and 40 feet tall.
Even if you have visited many of the old missions, you will realize that this is an exceptional structure. Stepping inside, you first notice the altar wall with its reredos, or niches, with huge, saintly images. It is an impressive sight.
Since we were there on a Sunday morning, and people were worshiping, I did not take photos inside the sanctuary. Masses are held on Saturday evenings and Sunday mornings in the church and Monday through Friday in the chapel, so visitors are politely quiet and respectful.
As in most California missions, the thick adobe walls provide a cool refuge on a warm summer morning.
A Town Grows Up
With the labor of indigenous people, the Spaniards established the church and settlement with adobe houses, storage spaces, and other structures. San Juan Bautista soon became a busy town with many industries such as weaving, tanning and candle making, in addition to the gardens and orchards. Hotels and a livery stable provided lodging for travelers and their animals and work for many permanent residents.
The surrounding area is still a productive agricultural zone with deep, rich soil and many vegetable farms.
Vestments and Texts
Inside the mission museums, there are examples of original furniture, sacred objects, and old vestments, including priestly robes from Russia, China, and Venice. Large, handwritten hymnals and sacred manuscripts written on vellum by a priest known for his musical talents are also on display.
You can see that the thick adobe walls were built to last, and provide very effective insulation from the summer heat.
Conservation and archeological efforts continue to discover old artifacts on the grounds of the mission church. Unlike most California Mission sites, the surrounding area has not been encroached upon by urban expansion. The adjacent town is still small and rural in character, with miles of surrounding farms and ranches.
Restoration efforts on the mission and surrounding structures have continued throughout the years. This is "earthquake country", and there has been occasional damage and rebuilding from time to time. All repairs are based on preserving the original style, character, and atmosphere of the early mission days.
The Old Graveyard
Outside the north wall of the church is the old graveyard. Its tilting white crosses seem to have no names, but there is a memorial plaque on the wall remembering the life of the last full-blooded Indian woman to be buried there.
The first burials in this consecrated ground were done in 1808. It is believed that the mortal remains of 4300 Indian converts, Europeans, Californios, and Mestizos were buried here up until the 1930's
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The burial grounds are shaded by the church walls and olive trees. To the north in the distance are rows of vegetables growing in the well-tended fields.
A Spanish Plaza
San Juan Bautista is the only California mission which still faces an existing Spanish-style plaza which at one time was a typical plan for other mission churches.
The surrounding buildings and the open countryside still present a scene of a simpler time with an agrarian based community. If you can ignore the modern vehicles, you might imagine yourself transported back in time.
Surrounding the grassy plaza, many of the historical structures date back to the 1800's.
The large livery stable has several stalls as well as coaches and wagons, most of which are in fine restored condition.
In back of the livery is a series of workshops, filled with machinery and blacksmith items of the era. You might notice that the drill press, pictured below, needs no electrical or other power-- other than human.
We were on our way back from a weekend in Monterey, CA and still had plenty of time to get home. Our route took us a few miles off Hwy 101 to State Route 156, and right past the San Juan Bautista State Park.
We decided to stop for a short visit and were glad we did. The town is still small and surrounded by farm and range land, so the historic setting still retains its rural character.
I have visited most of the California Spanish missions and this is one of the most interesting. If you find yourself in this area, it is worth your time to stop and look around.
Questions & Answers
Question: What was the mission named after?
Answer: It was named by the Spanish founders honoring San Juan Bautista (Saint John the Baptist).
Question: What is the mission made of?
Answer: California missions were made of locally available materials, generally stone, timber, tile, and adobe brick. Adobe was made from earth, water, straw, and animal manure. The walls of the adobe buildings were usually two or three feet thick. This natural insulation kept the interiors comfortably cool in the hot summers.
Question: What was the Mission San Juan Bautista used for?
Answer: It was, and still is, a church.
The California mission chain was established to convert the Indians, and for the Spanish to establish settlements to strengthen their claim to California.