Stephanie Launiu is a Native Hawaiian lifestyle and cultural writer. She has a degree in Hawaiian Pacific Studies. She lives in Hilo.
About Hawai'ian People
Many merely think of Hawai'i as the 50th state of the United States—a place where the weather is sunny all year long and there are hula dancers, beaches, luaus, surfers, and TV shows featuring women in bikinis, white sand shorelines, and waterfall backdrops. However, there's so much more to this land than what is depicted in pop culture.
This article will go far beyond what you thought you knew about Hawai'i. Read on to discover more about the relationship between the U.S., Hawai’i, and its native people. Even in the 21st century, the relationship is a complicated one that a majority of people have not yet learned about.
11 Things You May Not Know About Hawai'i
- Native Hawaiians are a race of people.
- Hawaiians almost became extinct.
- Hawai'i was an independent and sovereign nation.
- Hawaiians quickly became literate after western contact.
- Hawai'i's government was illegally overthrown by the United States of America.
- Native Hawaiians tried to fight back.
- The Hawaiian language was banned.
- Queen Lili'uokalani wrote the famous song "Aloha 'Oe" ("Farewell to Thee").
- The U.S. officially apologized for the illegal overthrow.
- Native Hawaiians are revitalizing their language and culture.
- Native Hawaiians are still struggling for self-governance.
Each of the topics above will be explained further in the article. Continue scrolling for more information.
1. Native Hawaiians Are a Race of People
Native Hawaiians, also known as Kanaka Maoli, are the indigenous or aboriginal people (and their descendants) of the Hawaiian islands. Their ancestors were the original Polynesians who sailed to Hawai’i and settled the islands around the 5th century AD.
“Native Hawaiian” is a racial classification used by the United States. In the most recent Census, 690,000 people reported that they were Native Hawaiian or of a mixed-race that includes Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander. There may now be as few as 5,000 pure-blood Native Hawaiians remaining in the world.
2. Hawaiians Almost Became Extinct
The first recorded western contact with Hawai'i was in 1778 when Captain James Cook, an English explorer, sailed on the HMS Resolution into Waimea Bay on Kaua'i. The next year he sailed into Kealakekua Bay in Kona on the Big Island of Hawai'i. It is estimated that between 400,000 and as many as one million Native Hawaiians were living on the major Hawaiian islands when Cook landed in Hawai'i.
Because Hawai'i is a group of islands isolated from other land masses and people, diseases that afflicted the rest of the world were not known in Hawai'i. Within a century after Cook first landed, however, the Native Hawaiian population had been decimated, dropping down to about 40,000. Deaths were attributed to a number of "new" diseases including smallpox, measles, influenza, sexually-transmitted diseases, whooping cough, and the common cold.
3. Hawai'i Was an Independent and Sovereign Nation
The Kingdom of Hawai'i was an internationally recognized monarchy that entered into bilateral treaties of trade and friendship with other countries including:
- The United States (1826)
- Great Britain (1836)
- France (1839)
- Denmark (1846)
- Hamburg (1848)
- Sweden and Norway (1852)
- Tahiti (1853)
- Bremen (1854)
- Belgium and Netherlands (1862)
- Italy and Spain (1863)
- Swiss Confederation (1864)
- Russia (1869)
- Japan (1871)
- New South Wales (1874)
- Portugal (1882)
- Hong Kong (1884)
- Samoa (1887)
Read More from WanderWisdom
4. Hawaiians Quickly Became Literate After Western Contact
The first Christian missionaries came to Hawai'i in 1820. Soon after, Hawaiian children began attending school and learned to read and write in the Hawaiian language.
In 1869, a newspaper article reported that Hawai’i was the only government from the Pacific area to attend a Paris exposition. At the event, Hawai'i displayed newspapers, Bibles, textbooks, books of law, agricultural products, and other examples of "civilization."
Meanwhile, European visitors to the Islands were reportedly astounded that in Hawai’i, the common man was taught the same sorts of things that only the European elite of the time were entitled to learn.
5. Hawai'i's Government Was Illegally Overthrown by the United States of America
On January 17, 1893, an illegal overthrow of Hawai'i's government took place. U.S. Marines from the USS Boston, two companies of U.S. sailors, and U.S. Government Minister John L. Stevens landed at Honolulu Harbor and, along with U.S. and European businessmen, effectuated an illegal coup against Queen Lili'uokalani.
What were their motives? Greed, control over cheap land, and control over the sugar industry. The businessmen and sugar planters were led by Sanford Dole, who some refer to as a "sugar baron." Sanford's cousin, James Dole, sometimes called the "pineapple king," began the pineapple industry in Hawaiʻi with his Hawaiian Pineapple Company. The Dole brand is undoubtedly familiar to you.
In the following years, Native Hawaiians were colonized and had to learn to live with their homeland being lost to the largest superpower in the world. This loss was accompanied by an endless influx of tourists and immigrants from other states and foreign countries. Additionally, Pearl Harbor was bombed during World War II because America used (and continues to use) Hawai'i for its Pacific fleet.
6. The Hawaiian Language Was Banned
Three years after the Hawaiian government was overthrown, a law was passed that made it illegal for school classes to be taught in anything but the English language. English replaced Hawaiian as the official language of government, business, and education.
So began the colonization of the Native Hawaiian people; children were punished in school for speaking Hawaiian, and those who spoke Hawaiian at home were ridiculed. This systematic suppression of Hawaiian culture and language took place for four generations, and the language was almost lost due to parents and grandparents who were uncomfortable passing the language on to younger generations.
It was not until a constitutional amendment passed in Hawai'i in 1978 (!) that it was once again legal to teach Hawaiian in the school system. Even then, Hawaiian wasn't taught in public schools until 1987, when a Hawaiian Immersion Program began. At the time, it was estimated that fewer than 1% of the population could speak Hawaiian. Today, UNESCO, a United Nations agency, classifies the Hawaiian language as "critically endangered", but according to the most recent American Community Survey, more than 18,000 people claim to speak Hawaiian at home. That's about 1.3% of Hawai'i's population. Slow progress, but progress nonetheless...
The College of Hawaiian Language at the University of Hawai‘i at Hilo, Ka Haka ‘Ula O Ke‘elikōlani, was the first college in the United States administered and conducted entirely in an indigenous language. In 1999, Ka Haka ‘Ula began offering a Master’s degree that was followed in 2004 with a doctoral program in Hawaiian language.
7. Native Hawaiians Tried to Fight Back
After the overthrow, Native Hawaiians tried to fight back through the U.S. legal system in the following ways:
- Requested an official investigation by the Cleveland administration: Hawai'i became a U.S. protectorate at the same time that an investigation was being done by U.S. President Grover Cleveland at the written request of Queen Lili'uokalani. Cleveland and his administration concluded that the overthrow had been illegal ("a grievous wrong has been done") and turned the issue over to Congress where it languished while the “straw government” in Hawai'i, who now had Sanford Dole as its President, continued to gain a stronger hold over the islands.
- Launched a petition: Meanwhile, Native Hawaiians launched a massive petition to stop the formal annexation of Hawai'i to the U.S. They thought that if Congress realized that Native Hawaiians did not want to be part of the U.S., they would restore independence to Hawai'i. Public meetings were held on the five major islands, and of the known population of 39,000 Native Hawaiians, 21,269 signed the petition. This is an incredible majority since many of the remaining numbers were children.
- Took it all the way to Washington D.C.: Queen Lili'uokalani traveled to Washington D.C. to present her protest and the petition to Congress. At the time, a trip of this distance took months by sea and land. Sadly, Queen Lili'uokalani's voyage proved to be a fruitless one. Congress had not acted on President Cleveland’s request, and a new Congress had come in with the administration of President William McKinley. By that time, the Spanish American War was brewing, and the U.S. didn’t want to give up Hawai'i's prime location in the Pacific.
In spite of the efforts of the Native Hawaiians and their Queen, Hawai'i was illegally annexed as a U.S. territory in 1898, along with 1.2 million acres of Hawaiian crown lands that had belonged to the monarchy and to the nation of Hawai'i.
8. Queen Lili'uokalani Wrote "Aloha 'Oe"
Ironically, the only person who saw any jail time from the overthrow was Queen Lili'uokalani. In 1895, a clandestine group of supporters of the monarchy attempted an unsuccessful counter-rebellion against the government led by Sanford Dole. There was no bloodshed, but weapons were discovered on the grounds of the royal palace, and Lili'uokalani was found guilty of treason against the government that had illegally overthrown her. Although she was sentenced to five years of hard labor, she only served nine months of house arrest.
During this time of incarceration, she wrote several songs, but “Aloha ʻOe” ("Farewell to Thee") is her most famous composition. Lili'uokalani originally wrote "Aloha ʻOe" in 1878 as a love song, but it is now commonly sung as a farewell song.
The territorial government eventually voted to give her an annual pension of $4,000, though the United States never compensated her for personal lands that were taken.
Lili'uokalani died in 1917 at the age of 79. In her will, she ordered that all of her belongings be sold with the proceeds going to the Queen Lili'uokalani Children’s Trust for orphaned and indigent Hawaiian children. Her trust still operates today. A statue of Queen Lili'uokalani was erected on the grounds of the Hawai'i state capitol.
Hawai'i's Story by Lili'uokalani Shows Life Through Her Eyes
Tribute to Queen Lili'uokalani by Adam Manalo-Camp
9. The U.S. Officially Apologized for the Illegal Overthrow
In 1993, President Bill Clinton signed an official apology to Native Hawaiians for the illegal overthrow of their nation. Public Law 103-150 was passed by a joint resolution of Congress in 1993 to acknowledge the 100th anniversary of the overthrow. Stipulations in the law stated that:
- The overthrow was illegal: Section 1 states: "The Congress...on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the illegal overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii on January 17, 1893, acknowledges the historical significance of this event which resulted in the suppression of the inherent sovereignty of the Native Hawaiian people" (italics added)
- The U.S. apologizes: "...to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the people of the United States for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii on January 17, 1893."
- Native Hawaiians may have legal claims against the U.S.: "Nothing in this Joint Resolution is intended to serve as a settlement of any claims against the United States."
10. Native Hawaiians Are Revitalizing Their Language and Culture
Although they make up about 20% of Hawai'i’s population according to the most recent Native Hawaiian Data Book published by the Office of Hawaiian Affairs (OHA), Native Hawaiians continue to work towards finding their rightful place in modern-day Hawai'i and regaining self-governance in some form. This includes rightful compensation for the illegal overthrow and a nation lost.
Here are some milestones and examples of their efforts:
- Governor John Waihe'e was the first elected governor of Hawai'i of Native Hawaiian ancestry. He served from 1986-1994.
- In 1987, instruction in the Hawaiian language began again in public schools. Today, 19 traditional public schools and six charter schools educate some of the state's public school students using the Hawaiian language to instruct in all subjects. Any student in Hawai'i may choose to participate in a Hawaiian language immersion program.
- A renaissance of the Hawaiian culture—including language, dance, arts, and traditional customs—began in the 1970’s and continues today. One such example is the weeklong Merrie Monarch Festival that takes place on the Big Island each year and celebrates the art of hula dancing.
- The HTA or Hawai'i Tourism Authority, a state agency once focused on bringing more tourists to Hawai'i, now works to ensure that Hawaiian cultural practitioners are more visible in the visitor industry. They support programs that spotlight the integrity and uniqueness of the Hawaiian culture to differentiate the Hawaiian Islands among visitor experiences, and to honor cultural authenticity.
11. Native Hawaiians Are Still Struggling for Self-Governance
In today's Hawai'i, the turbulence of a people who love their nation is palpable. Opinion and fact sometimes collide, and the menace of generational colonialism continues to penetrate the hearts and minds of many. This turbulence is a natural reaction to more than a century of frustration with America's apparent disregard for native rights.
There are ongoing efforts to restore Hawai'i to its rightful place in the global community of nations. If you would like to learn more about Native Hawaiians, along with the sovereignty and de-occupy movements in Hawai'i, below are a few links to explore.
You have been forewarned: Everything you thought you knew about Hawai'i will be challenged. It is far more than sun and surf.
NOTE: Relatively new on the political scene in Hawai'i is The Kānaka Party. It is a political grassroots movement by and for the people of Hawaiʻi. All are welcome to stand in Aloha, regardless of race, culture, national origin, creed, or sexual orientation. The Kānaka Party is about caring for the people; the environment and all creatures in it; promoting government accountability and transparency; hoʻoponopono (making right what is wrong) regarding the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi; and recognizing Ke Akua (the Divine). The Kānaka Party is committed to working within the U.S. political system to effectuate needed change that will benefit the people and future generations of Hawaiʻi.
For more information: https://www.kanakaparty.com/
Additional Resources and Reading on Hawai'i
Here are some resources if you would like to learn more about the Native Hawaiian people. Feel free to contact the author with any questions as well.
- Association of Hawaiian Civic Clubs
- Hawaiian Independence
- Hawaiian Kingdom
- Hawaiian Studies Program, University of Hawai'i at Hilo
- Hawaiian Studies Program, University of Hawai'i at Manoa
- Lili'uokalani Trust
- Office of Hawaiian Affairs
- Papa Ola Lokahi - Native Hawaiian HealthCare System
- Punana Leo Hawaiian Immersion Schools
- Ulukau.org - A Hawaiian Electronic Library
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
Questions & Answers
Question: I just visited Hawaii. Are there any efforts made to STOP the overproduction and overdevelopment of resorts. I was so saddened by the overpopulation and defecation of such sacred lands. Also, are there laws to be set in place to slow down the travels on things like the Road to Hana in an effort to preserve?
Answer: The selling of Hawaii as a commodified vacation destination continues on a daily basis, and this feeds the overproduction and overdevelopment of resorts. The resort pricing is so ridiculous that most locals can't afford to stay even 1 night. But the biggest detriment is to sacred land. In Hawaii, its not only the resorts but other industries that encroach on sacred land. The 30 meter telescope on top of Mauna Kea has been a huge controversy, but it looks as if that monstrosity will be built there nonetheless. There are now observatories on top of Haleakala on Maui. Activists who protest are made to look like anti-science loonies. It is a constant battle, and we need more people like you who care.
Question: What is a sign of greatest respect and honor to give a Hawaiian native?
Answer: Wow, thatʻs a question Iʻve never been asked before. Native Hawaiians are very diverse. A sign of respect and honor would be to value the history and culture of Native Hawaiians. If you are trying to find a physical way to show respect and honor, you might consider a gift from the island of the nativeʻs birth.
Question: If you're ethnically Filipino, does that make you a native Hawaiin?
Answer: No. If you're ethnically Filipino, then you're a Filipino that lives in Hawaii. Just like if you were ethnically Filipino living in Japan, you would never be called a Japanese. Native Hawaiians are defined as descendants of the indigenous people who inhabited the Hawaiian Islands at the time that Captain Cook landed in 1778.
Question: Did Japan have aggressive ambitions towards Hawaii prior to the US take over?
Answer: No, there was no indication of their ambition towards Hawaii prior to WWII. In 1871, the Kingdom of Hawaii and Japan signed a bilateral trade agreement. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor simply because the U.S. Pacific Fleet was parked there. By all accounts, the Japanese people are now in love with Hawaii and Native Hawaiian culture. Many Kumu hula have hula halau in Japan, and it is estimated that there are more hula dancers in Japan than there are in Hawaii.
Question: I am traveling to Maui, is there a list of Native Hawaiian owned businesses available so I can support them as a tourist?
Answer: Unfortunately, I havenʻt seen a list of Native Hawaiian-owned businesses. Itʻs a great idea though. This is a link to the monthly newsletter, Ka Wai Ola (translation: Living Water) published by the Office of Hawaiian Affairs. There are sometimes ads by native businesses, and the latest info on the Native Hawaiian community and politics. You can subscribe for a mailed or digital copy for free. https://www.oha.org/kwo
Question: Why is the colonization of the Pacific islands by Polynesians acceptable and not the colonization by others in world history?
Answer: Because Polynesians settled uninhabited islands, they didn't colonize the islands. Colonization is when a greater and stronger country takes over an inhabited area that already has it's own people, language and government, and attempts to bring them under the control of that country, often changing their laws, allegiance, citizenship, language, etc. Colonies are also never seen as "equal" to the country that colonized them.
Question: How did Hawaiians know Maui Nui was once one island? The time the water level was that low was long before voyaging and Polynesian contact and possibly pre-modern Huma's. Yeti is part Hawaiian myth.
Answer: It is always a mystery how the ancient Hawaiians had knowledge that science only found out about later. Another example is the legend about how Pele, Goddess of the Volcano, traveled from Kahiki Nui in the South Pacific to look for a new home. She took her digging stick and dug into the earth on each island beginning with Niihau in the north, where she would light fires in the earth on each island. Until she finally came to the Big Island in the south, where she decided to make her home. Surprisingly, the path that Pele took in the legend is exactly the path of how each island was created with geological accuracy. The islands are older in the north where there are volcanoes that are now extinct. And the Big Island is the youngest island which is still having active lava flows and where legend says that Pele still lives.
Question: Hawaii needs to stay with the USA as a state, as Russia or China would invade. Do you agree?
Answer: Statehood continues to be debated here in Hawaii. I doubt Russia or China would invade Hawaii. If Hawaii were not part of the U.S., it's almost a certainty that the USA would continue to have military bases in Hawaii just as they do in over 100 countries around the world.
Question: If Hawaii becomes independent, what do you think would be the fate of non-natives who currently live in Hawaii?
Answer: If Hawaii were an independent nation, I think it would become like other independent nations. It would be able to define the requirements for Hawaiian citizenship, immigration, and residency. I'm not sure whether "non-native" would be defined in a constitution. U.S. citizens might be able to hold dual citizenship, but it is impossible to tell. Hawaii would become responsible, on the world stage, for the protection of human rights and it would re-join the world as an independent nation just as it was prior to 1893.
Question: So where do Filipinos come into all this ? They call themselves Hawaiians but I disagree.
Answer: Filipinos are not Hawaiians, but there are many people in Hawaii who are a mixture of Filipino and Hawaiian because their parents or ancestors are mixed race. But Filipinos are from the Philippine Islands and are considered Asian, not Polynesian as Hawaiians are.
Question: I have been pushing for the Island of Savai'i to be recognized as the cradle of Polynesia. The name "Hawaii" I thought was from the name Savai'i. Do you agree?
Answer: This is an unknown lost to antiquity. Although the name Savai'i sounds similar to Hawai'i, Hawaiian legends tell of an early navigator named Hawaiiloa who landed in the island chain and after whom the islands were named.
Question: Are you sure that the Japanese or Japanese immigrants living here do not want Hawaii for themselves? I heard a Japanese man once tell me that if the Japanese can't own Hawaii thru war, then they will buy Hawaii up. What do you think he meant by that?
Answer: I think he meant that Japanese investors, at one time, wanted to buy as much Hawaii property as possible. This was true especially in the 1980's. But since then, Japanese investment has stabilized and I think that Chinese investors now own more real estate in Hawaii than those from Japan.
Question: Were the original Hawaiians of African descent?
Answer: No they weren't. They are Polynesians, and archaeologists' theorize that the Polynesians originated from the Indonesian area when ancient men sent small canoes to inhabit the Southern Pacific islands. The "original" Hawaiians migrated by outrigger canoes from the Marquesas Islands in the South Pacific.
Question: Given that most people, rightfully in Hawaii or not, do not want to give up their status and belongings, what might be some options (geographically and politically) to regain sovereignty?
Answer: I think it would have to be an international effort through the United Nations. After all, Hawaii was an independent sovereign nation on the world stage when it was illegally overthrown with the backing of the U.S. military. Unfortunately, the U.S. is the only major country that has NEVER returned any land/countries they colonialized. You can research the history of other civilized nations (United Kingdom, etc) who have returned and allowed the independence of possessions they once inhabited.
Question: Are you, the writer of this article, Native Hawaiian?
Answer: Yes, I am.
Question: Can you please give me any information about tourist operations, restaurants etc that are owned and run by indigenous Hawaiians or have financial pathways back into indigenous communities? We are coming over in January and want to support indigenous businesses and people where we can.
Answer: Thank you for your question. Unfortunately, there is not a dependable central place to get info on Native Hawaiian-owned businesses. Because Hawaii is a U.S. state, we are held to federal law regarding discrimination and in many instances, it works against native people because it can be seen as discriminatory to promote a business on the basis of the owner's race. This is a link to the "Native Hawaiian Chamber of Commerce" which you would think is made up of native-owned businesses. NOT. Most are not native-owned but operate in Hawaii and have the "best interests" of the "Hawaiian people and the spirit of aloha". https://business.cochawaii.org/list/member/native-...
Here's a link to the Office of Hawaiian Affairs loan program for Native Hawaiian business owners. This may get you closer to grassroots info. https://loans.oha.org/native-hawaiian-business-own...
Thanks so much for caring about Native Hawaiians. And if you need anything else, either before or during your trip, don't hesitate to email me directly at firstname.lastname@example.org
Question: Can native Hawaiians marry outside their race?
Answer: Of course. There are fewer than 5,000 pure native Hawaiians left on earth. We have been intermarrying for over 200 years.
Question: Were the native Hawaiians all the same "tribe"? When this US apology happened, were any lands returned to the indigenous people of Hawaii or money paid?
Answer: Native Hawaiians were all one people. They didn't have tribes. They knew their genealogy and that they all came from the same ancestral people, even though they settled on different islands in the Hawaiian archipelago. The Native Americans lived in tribes, and often one tribe didn't know about tribes that were living in other areas. Regarding the U.S. apology in 1993. It was an apology on paper only. No lands were returned and no restitution or money paid.
Question: As a person from the mainland, what can I and what can we do to help the people of Hawaii regain the land and increase the economy?
Answer: The best thing you can do is to stay informed on the Hawaiian land and sovereignty struggles taking place. Currently, the issue of the 30 meter telescope proposed to be built on Hawaii's highest mountain, Mauna Kea, is of paramount importance. But there are many other current issues affecting the lives of Hawaiians and non-Hawaiians in Hawaii. There are groups on Facebook you might consider checking out which have the mission of spreading the word on Native Hawaiian topics of interest. There are also links in this hub to Native Hawaiian organizations that can be helpful.
Question: Is it better to sell property in Hawaii in "Leasehold" form to preserve the land for Native Hawaiians? Hawaii should be given their independence. I voiced my opinion before, but I got some negative responses from other groups of Hawaiians, especially when I mentioned 'the Kingdom of Hawaii".
Answer: Whether property is "leasehold" or not in Hawaii won't affect Native Hawaiians, because the land would still be owned by a private property owner. There still remains a difference of opinion on the probability of Hawaii once again being known as the Kingdom of Hawaii. Even Hawaiians are split on this. But your full support for the future sovereignty of Native Hawaiians is very much appreciated.
Question: I'm a kamaaina. I got a degree in Hawaiian Studies when there wasn't such a thing. Anyways I am haole. Can I join the Aloha Aina political party as a haole?
Answer: Of course, you can. Here is the link to their Facebook page. They will have candidates on the ballot in November 2020. https://www.facebook.com/groups/alohaainaparty/
© 2013 Stephanie Launiu