Hawai'i and Native Hawaiians - What You May Not Know

Hawaiian man with his two children, circa 1890.
Hawaiian man with his two children, circa 1890.

What You May Not Know About Hawai'i

Many think of Hawai’i merely as the 50th state of the United States where the weather is sunny all year long, we have hula dancers, beaches, luaus, surfers, and a TV show called Hawaii 5-0. However there's so much more beyond just what modern day popular culture depicts about Hawai'i.

This article will go far beyond what you thought you knew about Hawai'i. Read on and learn about the relationship between the U.S., Hawai’i and its native people—it's a complicated one that a majority of people have not learned about. Each of the following topics will be explained more in the article:

  • Native Hawaiians are a race of people
  • Hawaiians almost became extinct
  • Hawai'i was an independent and sovereign nation
  • Hawaiians quickly became literate after western contact
  • Hawai'i's government was illegally overthrown by the United States of America
  • Native Hawaiians tried to fight back
  • The Hawaiian language was banned after the overthrow
  • Queen Lili'uokalani wrote the famous song titled "Aloha 'Oe" (translation: Farewell)
  • The U.S. officially apologized for the illegal overthrow
  • Native Hawaiians are revitalizing their language and culture
  • Ongoing efforts are being made by Kanaka Maoli for self-government

Native Hawaiians Are a Race of People

Hawaiian hula dancers c. 1885, photographed in J.J. Williams photo studio.
Hawaiian hula dancers c. 1885, photographed in J.J. Williams photo studio. | Source
  • Hawaiians are not named for the state (think Californians, New Yorkers, Texans, etc). Unlike the aforementioned states' residents, the state of Hawai'i is actually named for the native people.
  • Native Hawaiians, known also as kanaka maoli, are the indigenous people (and their descendants) of the Hawaiian islands. Their ancestors were the original Polynesians who sailed to Hawai’i and settled the islands around the 5th Century A.D.
  • “Native Hawaiian” is a racial classification recognized by the United States. In the 2010 Census: 527,077 people reported that they are Native Hawaiian alone or of a mixed race that includes Native Hawaiian. There now may be as few as 8,000 pure-blood Native Hawaiians remaining in the world.

Hawaiians Almost Became Extinct

Native Hawaiian family c. 1878
Native Hawaiian family c. 1878 | Source
  • The first recorded western contact with Hawai'i was in 1778 when Captain James Cook, an English explorer, sailed on the HMS Resolution into Waimea Bay on Kaua'i. The next year he sailed into Kealakekua Bay in Kona on the Big Island of Hawai’i.
  • It is estimated that between 400,000 and as many as one million Native Hawaiians were living on the major Hawaiian islands in the late 1700s when Cook landed in Hawai'i.
  • Because Hawai'i is a group of islands isolated from other land masses and people, diseases known in the rest of the world were not known in Hawai’i. Within a century after Cook first landed, the Native Hawaiian population had dropped to about 40,000. Deaths were attributed to a number of "new" diseases including smallpox, measles, influenza, sexually-transmitted diseases, whooping cough and the common cold.

Hawai'i Was an Independent and Sovereign Nation

The Kingdom of Hawai’i was an internationally-recognized monarchy that entered into bilateral treaties of trade and friendship with other countries including:

  • The United States (1826)
  • Great Britain (1836)
  • France (1839)
  • Denmark (1846)
  • Hamburg (1848)
  • Sweden and Norway (1852)
  • Tahiti (1853)
  • Bremen (1854)
  • Belgium and Netherlands (1862)
  • Italy and Spain (1863)
  • Swiss Confederation (1864)
  • Russia (1869)
  • Japan (1871)
  • New South Wales (1874)
  • Portugal (1882)
  • Hong Kong (1884)
  • Samoa (1887)

Hawaiians Quickly Became Literate After Western Contact

Missionaries preaching under kukui groves, 1841
Missionaries preaching under kukui groves, 1841
  • The first Christian missionaries came to Hawai’i in 1820 and Hawaiian children began attending school and learned to read and write in the Hawaiian language.
  • In 1869, a newspaper article reported that Hawai’i was the only government from the Pacific area to attend a Paris exposition. At the event, Hawai’i displayed newspapers, Bibles, textbooks, books of law, agricultural products and other examples of ‘civilization.’
  • European visitors were reportedly astounded that in Hawai’i, the common man was taught the same sorts of things that only European elite of the time were entitled to learn.

Hawai'i's Government Was Illegally Overthrown by the United States of America

The USS Boston's landing force on duty at the Arlington Hotel, Honolulu, at the time of the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, January 1893.
The USS Boston's landing force on duty at the Arlington Hotel, Honolulu, at the time of the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, January 1893.
  • When? On January 17, 1893, an illegal overthrow of Hawai’i’s government took place.
  • Who? U.S. Marines from the USS Boston, two companies of U.S. sailors, and U.S. Government Minister John L. Stevens landed at Honolulu Harbor and, along with U.S. and European businessmen, effectuated an illegal coup against Queen Lili'uokalani.
  • Their motives? Greed, control over cheap land, and control over the sugar industry. The businessmen and sugar planters were led by Sanford Dole who some refer to as a "sugar baron." Sanfordʻs cousin, James Dole, sometimes called the "pineapple king," also began the pineapple industry in Hawaiʻi and the Hawaiian Pineapple Company.

Native Hawaiians Tried to Fight Back

Drawing: "Meeting of Natives at Hilo, Island of Hawaii, Thursday, September 16, 1897 to Protest Against Annexation."
Drawing: "Meeting of Natives at Hilo, Island of Hawaii, Thursday, September 16, 1897 to Protest Against Annexation." | Source

After the overthrow, Native Hawaiians tried to fight back through the U.S. legal system.

  • An investigation by the Cleveland administration. Hawai’i became a U.S. protectorate while an investigation was done by U.S. President Grover Cleveland at the written request of Queen Lili'uokalani. Cleveland and his administration concluded that the overthrow had been illegal (“a grievous wrong has been done.”) He then turned the issue over to Congress where it languished while the “straw government” in Hawai’i, who now had Sanford Dole as its President, continued to gain a stronger hold over the islands.
  • Native Hawaiians also launched a petition. Meanwhile, Native Hawaiians launched a massive petition drive to stop the formal annexation of Hawai’i to the U.S. They thought that if Congress realized that Native Hawaiians did not want to be part of the U.S., they would restore independence to Hawai’i. Public meetings were held on the five major islands. Of the known population of 39,000 Native Hawaiians, 21,269 signed the petition. This is an incredible majority, since many of the remaining were children.
  • Petitioning all the way to Washington D.C. Queen Lili'uokalani traveled to Washington D.C. to present her protest and the petition to Congress. At the time, a trip of this distance took months by sea and land. All to no avail. Congress had not acted on President Cleveland’s request and a new Congress came in with the administration of President William McKinley. By that time, the Spanish American War was brewing and the U.S. didn’t want to give up Hawai’i’s prime location in the Pacific.
  • An illegal annexation. Hawai’i was then illegally annexed as a U.S. territory in 1898, along with 1.2 million acres of Hawaiian crown lands that had belonged to the monarchy and to the nation of Hawai’i. No compensation was paid to anyone.

The Hawaiian Language Was Banned After the Overthrow

Soon after the overthrow, a law was passed to make it illegal to teach in the schools in anything but the English language. English replaced Hawaiian as the official language of government, business and education.

So began the colonization of the Native Hawaiian people—children were punished in school for speaking Hawaiian and those who spoke Hawaiian in the home were looked down on. This systematic oppression of the culture and language took place for decades, and the language was almost lost due to parents and grandparents who were uncomfortable passing the language on to younger generations.

It was not until a constitutional amendment passed in Hawaiʻi in 1978 (almost a hundred years later!) that it was once again legal to teach Hawaiian in the school system.

Queen Lili'uokalani Wrote the Famous Song "Aloha 'Oe." (Translation: Farewell)

The statue of Liliʻuokalani stands at the Hawaiʻi State Capitol, but she faces ʻIolani Palace, her former home.
The statue of Liliʻuokalani stands at the Hawaiʻi State Capitol, but she faces ʻIolani Palace, her former home. | Source

Ironically, the only person who saw any jail time from the overthrow was Queen Lili'uokalani.

  • Arrested for treason. In 1895, a clandestine group of supporters of the monarchy attempted an unsuccessful counter-rebellion against the government led by Sanford Dole. There was no bloodshed, but weapons were discovered on the grounds of the royal palace. Lili'uokalani was found guilty of treason . . . against the government that had illegally overthrown her. Although she was sentenced to five years of hard labor, she served nine months of house arrest.
  • "Aloha 'Oe." It was during this time while she was incarcerated that she wrote several songs, but the song “Aloha ʻOe” is her most famous composition. Lili'uokalani wrote "Aloha ʻOe" in 1878, originally as a love song, though it is now commonly sung as a farewell song.
  • A small pension. The territorial government eventually voted her an annual pension of $4,000. The United States never compensated her for personal lands that were taken. Lili'uokalani died in 1917 at the age of 79. In her will, she ordered that all of her belongings be sold with the proceeds going to the Queen Lili'uokalani Children’s Trust for orphaned and indigent children. Her trust still operates today. A statue of Lili'uokalani was erected on the grounds of the Hawai'i state capitol.

Do you think Native Hawaiians should have the right to govern themselves again?

  • I don't know enough about the subject, but I'm willing to learn more.
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  • No
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Tribute to Queen Lili'uokalani by Adam Manalo-Camp

The U.S. Officially Apologized for the Illegal Overthrow

President Bill Clinton signed the official apology to Native Hawaiians.
President Bill Clinton signed the official apology to Native Hawaiians. | Source

In 1993, President Bill Clinton signed an official apology to Native Hawaiians for the illegal overthrow of their nation. Public Law 103-150 was passed by a joint resolution of Congress in 1993 to acknowledge the 100th anniversary of the overthrow. Stipulations in the law stated that:

  1. The overthrow was illegal. Section 1 states: "The Congress...on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the illegal overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii on January 17, 1893, acknowledges the historical significance of this event which resulted in the suppression of the inherent sovereignty of the Native Hawaiian people; (italics added)
  2. The U.S. apologizes. "...apologizes to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the people of the United States for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii on January 17, 1893."
  3. Native Hawaiians may have legal claims against the U.S. "Nothing in this Joint Resolution is intended to serve as a settlement of any claims against the United States."

Native Hawaiians are Revitalizing Their Language and Culture

  • In the 19th century, Hawaiians were decimated by disease until less than 40,000 survived.
  • In the 20th century they were colonized and had to learn to live with their homeland being lost to the largest super power in the world, along with an unlimited influx of tourists and immigrants from other states and foreign countries.
  • Additionally Pearl Harbor was bombed during World War II because America used Hawai’i (and continues to) for its Pacific fleet.

Although they are now only 12% of Hawai'i’s population, Native Hawaiians continue to work towards finding their rightful place in modern-day Hawai'i.

  • Gov. John Waihe'e was the first elected governor of Hawai'i of Native Hawaiian ancestry. He served from 1986-1994.
  • In 1987, instruction in the Native Hawaiian language began again in public schools. Today there are 21 public Hawaiian immersion schools in the state of Hawai'i. Students are of diverse races who choose to be educated in all subjects in the Hawaiian language.
  • A renaissance of the Hawaiian culture – language, dance, arts, customs - began in the 1970’s and continues today.
  • Native Hawaiians continue their quest to regain self-governance in some form, and rightful compensation for the illegal overthrow and a nation lost.

1993 protest in front of 'Iolani Palace on the 100th anniversary of the overthrow
1993 protest in front of 'Iolani Palace on the 100th anniversary of the overthrow

Ongoing Efforts by Kanaka Maoli for Self-Governance

In today's Hawai'i, the turbulence of a people who love their nation is palpable. Opinion and fact sometimes collide, and the menace of generational colonialism continues to penetrate the hearts and minds of many. This turbulence is a natural reaction to more than a century of frustration with America's apparent disregard for native rights.

There are ongoing efforts to restore Hawai'i to its rightful place in the global community of nations. If you would like to begin your journey of learning more about the sovereignty and de-occupy movements in Hawai'i, here are a few links to start with.

You have been forewarned: Everything you thought you knew about Hawai'i will be challenged. It is far more than sun and surf.

© 2013 Stephanie Launiu

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Comments 156 comments

GuitarGear profile image

GuitarGear 3 years ago from Youngstown, Ohio

Wow! What a great hub! It offers a wealth of history about the Hawaiian people and it's culture of which we are both a part. I am 50% Hawaiian, a member of OHA and have recently been researching the sovereignty movement. Just last week I received a registration form from Kana'iolowalu or the Native Hawaiian Roll Commission. They are trying to regain the sovereignty of the Hawaiian nation and reestablish it to give the Hawaiian people the same rights and privileges that mainland native Americans such as the Sioux and Cherokee nations have. It's not widely know that Hawaii was an independent nation and was taken by force to further America's sugar industry. Mahalo nui loa Hawaiian Scribe!

Hawaiian Scribe profile image

Hawaiian Scribe 3 years ago from Hawai'i Author

A'ole pilikia (you're welcome). I enjoyed writing it, and really have gained a new respect for Lili'uokalani and how she dealt with the inevitable forces swirling around her. Native Hawaiians are alive and well. I'm glad you are keeping in touch with happenings here "at home". Aloha, Stephanie

hawaiianodysseus profile image

hawaiianodysseus 3 years ago from Southeast Washington state

Professionally researched and magnificently presented, Hawaiian Scribe. You are a literary ambassador for the Hawaiian people. Thank you so very much for sharing these important and, sadly, little known facts about Hawai'i Nei.

Aloha and mahalo, Hawaiian Scribe!

Hawaiian Scribe profile image

Hawaiian Scribe 3 years ago from Hawai'i Author

@hawaiianodysseus: Thank you! Who knows where all of this will end up, but I felt a need to retell the story. If even one new person learns something they never knew before about our ancestors' experience, my time will be worth it. And thanks to the internet and google, the written word lives on longer than ever. Aloha no, Stephanie

Amaryllis profile image

Amaryllis 3 years ago from New Hampshire

This is an excellent hub, I really enjoyed reading and learning more about the Hawaiian people. I knew a little about this from a visit to the islands over twenty years ago, but not the details. This is a story that should be told far more often.

Hawaiian Scribe profile image

Hawaiian Scribe 3 years ago from Hawai'i Author

Thank you @amaryllis! Millions visit Hawai'i each year and probably most of them don't know the history of the native people. I'm glad you've had a chance to visit the islands, and mahalo nui for commenting on my hub. Aloha, Stephanie

Hawaiian Scribe profile image

Hawaiian Scribe 3 years ago from Hawai'i Author

@meetdoctor: Thank you! I look forward to reading more of your hubs too. Aloha, Stephanie

GuitarGear profile image

GuitarGear 3 years ago from Youngstown, Ohio


I just reread this very excellent hub. I keep coming back to it to hear the beautiful "slack-key" guitar melody in the video. Did Adam Manalo-Camp write the music or just put the video together? Slack-key guitar originated in Hawaii. I'm going to write a hub about it sometime in the future. Thanks again for this hub.



Hawaiian Scribe profile image

Hawaiian Scribe 3 years ago from Hawai'i Author

Hi Walt,

The name of the song is "Kanaka Waiwai", an old-time favorite Hawaiian church song. It tells the story of the rich man and the poor man in the bible. Please write your hub on slack-key. I can't wait to read it. Perhaps I will write a hub on "Kanaka Waiwai". Aloha, Stephanie

billybuc profile image

billybuc 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

Fascinating information! I, of course, knew about the illegal take-over of Hawaii by the U.S. I did not, however, know that Clinton apologized.

Thank you for the education.

Hawaiian Scribe profile image

Hawaiian Scribe 3 years ago from Hawai'i Author

Thanks for reading the hub! Yes Pres. Clinton apologized 20 years ago this year. How time flies when you're having fun... Aloha, Stephanie

Emanate Presence profile image

Emanate Presence 3 years ago from the Head to the Heart


Even though Kati and I lived on the islands for three years and returned twice after that, I knew almost nothing of the history that you presented. I do remember a woman on the Big Island saying to me with disdain that the Hawaiian language had only 12 letters, and later thinking, how beautiful and brilliant the Hawaiian language was in its simplicity.

Your article was informative and engaging. It is difficult to not feel sad about such events, and even for a peaceful person, to not feel anger.

Has anything changed in Hawaii since Bill Clinton apologized for the U.S. government 20 years ago?

Voted Up, Interesting, Useful.

Hawaiian Scribe profile image

Hawaiian Scribe 3 years ago from Hawai'i Author

@Emanate Presence: Mahalo for your comments. Yes, Hawaii's history has been very complicated in its relationship with the U.S. I'm glad that you were able to learn a little more of its story from my hub. Nothing has changed much since Pres. Clinton apologized. The Hawaiian people are still seeking some official recognition that we are a native people to the "Americas" like the Native Americans and Alaska natives. We are called "Native Hawaiians" but have no direct relationship with the federal government as other native people do. It is all very complicated, but meanwhile the sun is shining, the birds are singing and Hawaii is still a beautiful place to be. Aloha, Stephanie

Neil Sperling profile image

Neil Sperling 3 years ago from Port Dover Ontario Canada

Respect! ............ thanks for a great hub.

Hawaiian Scribe profile image

Hawaiian Scribe 3 years ago from Hawai'i Author

Thanks for reading my hub, Neil. I do appreciate it and am glad that you enjoyed it. Aloha, Stephanie

Malia 2 years ago

Good, general article. However, the song "Aloha Oe" was NOT written during Liliuokalani's imprisonment. It was composed in 1878. Liliuokalani was imprisoned in 1895. She did compose several songs during her imprisonment but not that particular title. Aloha Oe could also mean Love to you... as well as farewell. And this song was a love song not necessarily a song of parting. The other point I'd like to bring up is, there are credible revisionist theories that put the population of Hawaii at the time of Cook's arrival at close to a million vs. 400 thousand which makes the decimation due to western contact even more severe.

Hawaiian Scribe profile image

Hawaiian Scribe 2 years ago from Hawai'i Author

Mahalo Malia for reading my hub and offering the correction on "Aloha ʻOe". I have corrected the date of "Aloha ʻOeʻs composing as well as its original intent as a love song. I also added the upward estimate of one million kanaka maoli at time of contact to the 400,000 as a possible range. Iʻve also heard that ʻone millionʻ population estimate, and if true, would indeed signal a much larger decimation of the Native Hawaiians in the 19th century. A hui hou, Stephanie

Marie Ua 2 years ago

Mahalo, for taking the time to write this. I loved it and will share.

onipaa 2 years ago

Loved this, brilliantly short and direct.

One correction: Sanford Dole is NOT the Dole Pineapple guy, that was another man named James Dole (distant cousin).

When James came to Hawaii, he came up with this crazy idea to plant pineapple (indigenous to South America), so he leased some land and started growing. The sugar barons (including Sanford) saw this as a threat to their operations, and played him into bankruptcy. To settle his debts, James sold Dole Pineapple and left Hawaii.

Tari Kehaulani Chastain 2 years ago

Thank you. Reading the history of the islands have really opened up my eyes. Born and raised on Molokai and left the islands in 1979. I have never really had any interest in the history until now. Thank you again.

Hawaiian Scribe profile image

Hawaiian Scribe 2 years ago from Hawai'i Author

@Marie Ua: Mahalo nui for reading this hub and sharing. The more people who know the facts behind Hawaiʻiʻs history...the better. A hui hou, Stephanie

Hawaiian Scribe profile image

Hawaiian Scribe 2 years ago from Hawai'i Author

@onipaa: I have corrected the information on Sanford Dole and James Dole. It is always in the longterm interest of kanaka maoli that our history be presented correctly. Mahalo nui for reading this hub and presenting your manaʻo. Aloha, Stephanie

Hawaiian Scribe profile image

Hawaiian Scribe 2 years ago from Hawai'i Author

@Tari Kehaulani Chastain: Iʻm so glad you got a chance to read this hub and it has sparked your interest in Hawaiʻiʻs history. Message me if you want to know ways in which you can continue learning about Hawaiʻi from a distance. You will always be Hawaiian no matter how far from home you are. Aloha mau loa, Stephanie

thoreauing profile image

thoreauing 2 years ago from Hawaii

I appreciate your Hub and FYI: Hawai'i is the name of the people from Moku O Keawe. Our race is Maori or Maoli. Native Hawaiian is the first federally defined people by U.S. statute according to the 1920 Hawaiian Homes Commission Act. Mahalo piha.........

Kupono Kahananui 2 years ago

The only flaw I found was reference to Mele ( Song ) Aloha Oe. Queen Lilioukalani did write it and many others compiled my Mary Kawena Pukui and my Great Aunt Doroth Kahananui. The song was actually written on O'ahu at a place known as Maunawili , at the time a " estate ". She was watching the Estate owner say goodbye to his young bride before leaving for Honolulu with Lilioukalani. It was they she wrote about , not abot the overthrow at all. Ua mau ke ea o ka aina ike pono oni pa'a......the strength and the souvernty of the people is perpetuated in rightioisness .

Irene kekahuna 2 years ago

I would like everyone to know that Lorna's grandfather, my father my own father was Pure Hawiian. his given name was keoki Alapai nui Kekahuna

gardengirl 2 years ago

I went to High School on Oahu. We studied about the illegal take over. We took the Philippines too, but gave it back. A signed agreement isn't going to fix what happened. And the locals are still resentful. Do the Hawaiians want the island back? Or is it too late? 2 years ago

Yes I would love to learn more.

Tari Kehaulani Chastain

Kamiano 2 years ago

Mahalo for posting this. I know you probably knew this however, although President Clinton declared an apology of the overthrow of Hawaii and has added Native Hawaiian to the ethnicity question on the US Census. The US government does not recognize Native Hawaiians as the indigenous people of Hawai'i and this is Important for people to know. Every nation that is part of the United Nations, except for the United States of America recognizes Native Hawaiians as the Indigenous people of the Hawaiian Islands. Every Nation in the UN except for the government of the USA. So the apology given by President Clinton is just cosmetic and fluff. The US president, Congress, and senate need to put an acceptable and official Bill into Law declaring Native Hawaiians are recognized by the US government as the indigenous people of the Hawaiian islands. Just like they do for Fijians, Samoa, Tahiti, and the Marquesas.

pomai 2 years ago

Aloha, mahalo for sharing your knowledge of Hawaiian history. But. There are a few flaws. We are not native to america. We are not Indians. Aug 10,2012 the family of nations has recognized the Hawaiian Kingdom as a sovereign nation. The reason is there is NO TREATY to be found. To learn more go to Dr Said has given two lectures this week at Boston and Harvard Universities. Topic Hawaii- an American State or a State under American Occupation. Aloha and mahalo for sharing.

pomai 2 years ago

Aloha. Inrespons to Kamiano. Last week in a secret meeting OHA and Kanaioluwalu went to the Department of Interior. Now that we have our list would you please recognizes us a nation. The DOI said NO. For more details freehawaiiblog.

Andrea Y Reyes 2 years ago

I came from SITS and I was immediately grabbed by your thumbnail with the old picture. I love old pictures. I have not spent a lot of time studying the injustices that my government had imposed upon the Hawaiian people, but it doesn't surprise me at all, seeing as it is the exact same way that we treated all other indigenous races and how we still treat minorities today. Good for you for spreading your knowledge of this. I learned something today :)

Jonah Kaleolani Mawae 2 years ago

I am Native Hawaiian. born in Honolulu, Oahu. as a child I always wonder why my (tutu) grandmother would only speak in the Hawaiian language first. then English. she was teaching her grandkids Hawaiian as our first language. I know more about my Native Hawaiian today! then year's ago as a child. we are now 6th generation of part- Hawaiian's now in ten state's. Aloha e Mahalo Nui loa

Dayna Kuulei Kauwalu Sanchez 2 years ago

Mahalo nui loa! It is a shame what was done to our kupuna! It is a worse shame that the American government knows and recognizes that the over throw of the Hawaiian Kingdom was illegal and yet they still refuse to act to make it right. But as we all know, oppression of an indigenous people for the gain of wealth, land, and power is what the American government is all about. Sad part bus that they are convincing and using indigenous people's to do this to their own!! So sad! Mahalo for sharing your manao and our history so that others may learn the truth!

Diatta @ Femme Fitale Fit Club 2 years ago

This was very interesting. I love Hawai'i especially Maui. Visiting from #sitssharefest.

Kimberly Amici 2 years ago

Wow, what an amazing story. I and so glad I stopped by from SITS. my interest is piqued and am looking forward to learning more about the state and it's people.

Merlinda Little 2 years ago

Really really informative! So much history in your entry #SITSSharefest

Pema Gilman 2 years ago

I saddens me to see the Native Hawaiian people being encouraged to accept "recognition" to become like the Native American Indians (Sioux, etc). Look at how the US government treats them as third class citizens with little health care and in poverty on reservations. Native Hawaiians deserve real, not token, sovereignty. I know the political arrangements would be difficult however 'difficult' should not be an excuse for 'impossible'. Hawaii is an illegally occupied nation! If its wrong for Russia to occupy Crimea then its wrong for the US to occupy Hawaii. Just saying.....

iidibi 2 years ago

My Aunt Joyce married Elmo Herman Vincent Kalei Aukai Shaw. He was a merchant marine. His line goes back many generations of Hawai'ians. I have never been there. My sister in law born in the Philippines lived there for 15 years as a child. They all loved it. Maybe one day I can go there and visit! Such an awesome page!

Hawaiian Scribe profile image

Hawaiian Scribe 2 years ago from Hawai'i Author

Thank you @iidibi! I do hope you can visit sometime soon. Thank you for reading my hub. Aloha mau loa, Stephanie

Hawaiian Scribe profile image

Hawaiian Scribe 2 years ago from Hawai'i Author

Mahalo nui for your comments, @Pema Gilman. I do agree that Native Hawaiians should not be given "token" sovereignty. This piece, however, was not meant to be an opinion piece but rather a simple educational piece that non-Hawaiians could learn from reading. I felt that the more non-Hawaiians could understand what really went on, the better. Thank you for reading this hub. I thought exactly as you did when the Crimea issue first hit the news. The U.S. was getting bent out of shape about that, but had forgotten what they did to many others. A hui hou, Stephanie

Irene kekahuna 2 years ago

I have been to Hawaii 15 times almost every two years , with my sisters .We have many friends there and many relatives. Hawaii is almost like a religious experience, as my niece Chris said when she went there some years ago. How sad that my granddaughter wants to live there but the job prospects are almost nil. So unfair that Hawaiians, so many have to live out of there own country because of job prospects. Aloha!

Hawaiian Scribe profile image

Hawaiian Scribe 2 years ago from Hawai'i Author

Mahalo @Irene Kekahuna for your thoughts. Yes, it is "hewa" that many Hawaiians have to live away from their homeland. My father moved our family to the mainland a few years after statehood, and I lived there many years until my husband and I brought our kids back to raise them here. Please stay in touch. Aloha mau loa, Stephanie

Bernadette V Kelekolio 2 years ago

Mahalo Nui Loa! I applaud you with this wonderfully written piece regarding the overthrow of our Queen Lydia Lili'u Loloku Walania Wewehi Kamaka'eha "Lili'uokalani". We Hawaiians as a people have a long way to go before we're even close to getting what is rightfully ours. The government will continue to play games & continue to take our humble ways as weakness'. I'll never be able to understand the greed of not just the "white man" but greed in mankind period. Why does mankind think it's ok to take what clearly does not belong to them? I doubt anyone will ever know. But what I do know is the unjust & disrespect that was shown & given to the Hawaiian people & especially to their Queen, no amount of "sorry" will make up for all that was STOLEN, STRIPPED & RIPPED from them, us. The ONLY way to make things right is to make ALL WRONG DOINGS RIGHT.

Because of people like you who care & understand & take precious time to write the remnants of our past so the next generation knows what truly happened, you & others like you give us hope & mana to keep our voices PROUD & LOUD. We WILL BE HEARD! Aloha 'Oe. Mahalo! Me Ke Aloha Pumehana!

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Hawaiian Scribe 2 years ago from Hawai'i Author

Mahalo nui @ Bernadette V Kelekolio. Nothing I write can fully explain the hurt and damage done to the kanaka maoli. I wanted to keep the article simple and clear as to what happened, so that non-Hawaiians could see the injustice and perhaps spread what they learned to others. We all have a voice. I am much better at the written word than public speaking. Stay strong and onipaʻa. Aloha mau loa, Stephanie

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GuitarGear 2 years ago from Youngstown, Ohio

My brother just realized a life-long dream by selling everything he had and moving to Hawaii. My nephew John moved there with his wife after being discharged from the Marines. I hope to visit next summer. We have relatives all over the islands although my family originated on Maui.

"Maui no ka oi!" Mahalo Stephanie!

Punohu 2 years ago

Don't be fooled, u are not a native hawaiian, you are kanaka maoli. Native hawaiian is a fictious race created by the US government. You cannot put a blood quantum on our people, not the traditional way! If u have a little drop you were considered a kanaka maoli!!! Don't be fooled by kanaiolowalu or Kau inoa. Both state runned entities. Don't let them limit us to what is rightfully ours!

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Hawaiian Scribe 2 years ago from Hawai'i Author

So glad to hear the news @GuitarGear! I do hope you have a chance to visit next year. The islands are calling you. Aloha, Stephanie

Manupupule 2 years ago

According to the work of Dr. David Keanu Sai's Dissertation there are subtle yet significant historical facts left out of this brief. Such as the statement that Hawaii was annexed, this is Factually and Legally Untrue despite what appearances may be and despite what we were taught growing up in history class. The State and Federal Government have been unable to substantiate the claim of jurisdiction with written proof said Annexation actually took place.

Please review the attached Dissertation / Video Presentation

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Hawaiian Scribe 2 years ago from Hawai'i Author

Mahalo nui for referencing the important work of Dr. Keanu Sai. My article isnʻt a "brief". Itʻs meant to familiarize those who have not heard about Hawaiiʻs history with what happened to the Kanaka Maoli. I leave the greater debates on what was legal and what wasnʻt to the lawyers. But as a Kanaka Maoli, I owe a great debt of gratitude to those (like you) who continue working publicly on our behalf. Me ka haʻahaʻa, Stephanie

Donna M Stevens 2 years ago

I have heard of an island where the people retain their native ways. The island is not open to visitors. Can you tell me about it?

Jennifer Swearingen 2 years ago

Aloha Stephanie,

I have lived on O'ahu for a little over a year and I don't know what to call non-native Hawaiians. People assume because I live here I'm Hawaiian but of course this is not the case. What do you call (in English) residents of Hawaii who are not Native Hawaiian?

Mahalo nui loa,


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Hawaiian Scribe 2 years ago from Hawai'i Author

The island is Niʻihau, the northernmost of the major Hawaiian islands. You can find out more here: It is a privately owned island and the Hawaiians who live there practice subsistence farming and still speak in the old dialect of the Hawaiian language. There are some charter flights for hunting on the back side of the island, and some charter fishing boats anchor a distance from the island, but you are correct that you have to have an invitation to go onto the inhabited side of the island. Aloha and thanks for asking!

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Hawaiian Scribe 2 years ago from Hawai'i Author

Interesting question. "Malihini" are newcomers; kamaʻaina are those who are born here regardless of ethnicity. But an English word? Hmmm...most of the people living in Hawaiʻi are not Native Hawaiian, so I guess you could choose to identify yourself in whichever way makes you comfortable. Some people say they are "transplanted New Yorkers", others say they are "mainland Japanese". You could also say you are a "resident of Hawaii", that you "live in Mililani", etc. Itʻs a tricky issue because our state is unique in that it is named for the people, the people are not named for the state. If you come up with a better way of identifying yourself, let me know. Iʻve never been asked this question, so I am definitely interested in your experience. Aloha and mahalo, Stephanie

Manuel G. Calhau, Jr. 2 years ago

I've always believed that the sugar & pineapple growers were behind the overthrow, but recently was told they, the growers, didn't have much to do with the overthrow. Comment's please.

Kelii 2 years ago

My great-grandmother is one of the three hula dancers.

KKM 2 years ago

Anyone familiar with Hawaii's legal history knows that there is no treaty of annexation, and that none of the Hawaiian Islands are named in the 1900 Organic Act or the 1959 Statehood Act as a defined territory. Therefore, Hawaiʻi was never annexed by the United States, nor was it admitted to the union under its own laws. Instead, Hawaiʻi has been under a prolonged and illegal occupation by the United States since August 12, 1898.

Hawaiian residents of aboriginal descent make up more than one-fifth of the current population, when those of mixed ancestry are included. However, the laws of occupation will only allow lineal descendants of Hawaiian Kingdom citizens—84% of whom are aboriginal—who were alive prior to the illegal 1893 overthrow, to have voting rights during de-occupation. Resident aliens will then have the option to apply for citizenship.

Edward Mersburgh 2 years ago

I would like to sit down with you and discuss my lineage and how I can be of assistance. Mahalo.

KKKM 2 years ago

Hawaiians were exploited and it was a tragedy. But some people think that Hawaii should be its own nation and they are delusional. Anyone who complains about the American "occupation" of Hawaii while also continung to take welfare, use tax funded roads, schools and programs, and take social security.......Well I guess you are just as complicit in the "occcupation" then arent you? Lots of people talk big but then scoop up US aid and benefits as fast as they can. Id like to see the plan for land redistribution if Hawaii seceeded. These jobless mokes think that they would each get their own beachside mansion ahahha. It belonged to the CROWN, to to YOU.

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NiaLee 2 years ago from BIG APPLE

Hawaiian Scribe, thank you for this great piece of art. The knowledge and beauty you just shared with us is uplifting. Now, hope the best will be done for the Hawaiian people. Colonization has always been about greed, taking all we can and handicapping the natives, so they become dependent for ever. Let's replenish the culture and grow independence as a way of life while targeting and enjoying a better life.

Love and peace to all. Have a good weekend.

Kimo 2 years ago

Aloha great job on this. Just fyi Waimea Kaua'i was cook's first steps on Hawaiian soil. Aloha!

KKM 2 years ago

Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery. So, mahalo to the upset person who copied my user name, and who used a straw man and red herring in reply to my previous comment, instead of refuting the evidence. There is no treaty of cession for Hawaiʻi to secede from. You can't get divorced from someone you were never married to.

Kimo 2 years ago

Nevermind that last comment.. you wrote 'first contact'. U geffum Nt! sorry ALOHA

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RobertConnorIII 2 years ago from Michigan

We like the hub and learned facts not told in my history book!

Blackspaniel1 profile image

Blackspaniel1 2 years ago

I found this very interesting. I am aware there is some sort of confusion still regarding whether Hawaiian coins are former legal tender or not. It appears they could easily be.

Kaumualii 2 years ago

Actually the business men that orchestrated the "overthrow" were not American. Men like Sanford B Dole and Lorrin Thurston were sons of the missionaries who first came to Hawaii, but they were Hawaiian citizens. They held offices in the constitutional monarchy. Since they werenʻt foreign citizens trying to usurp the nation, but itʻs own citizens, that makes it a revolution. But seeing as they needed foreign intervention to overcome the government (the U.S. Marines sent by Stevens) that makes it a fake revolution. A true revolution is only valid in the international community when there is no foreign intervention, only if the citizens of that country can achieve victory on their own. A good example would be the French Revolution. And there is no treaty of Annexation between the USA and the Kingdom of Hawaii, which is the only way that the territory of one nation can pass into the hands of another. As for the Kuʻe Petitions, I am not sure of the numbers but I think the signatures were closer to 40,000 than 20,000. That would be due to the other Hawaiian nationals who signed, Filipinos, Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese, and Europeans as well. Now while these people werenʻt ethnic Hawaiians, they were citizens of the nation of Hawaii.

AngelaKeen 2 years ago


Maika'i!!! As a former journalist in Hawai'i (KGMB News and KHNL 15 years) I want to commend you for this post. It has been so important to me to study Hawaiian history and olelo Hawai'i. Your blog/story is well written and so easy for people to understand. I commend you for making changes that were suggested by readers. I hope you will continue to write about this topic because you do it so well! I now work in the travel industry and every opportunity I have, I share Hawaiian history with malihini (newcomers). I do my best to encourage people to read up on, "The Law of The Splintered Paddle," and other important history of Hawai'i. Again, job well done! Looking forward to more of your posts and sharing them with others.

Mahalo Piha,

Angela Keen

Pilialoha 2 years ago

Very well written. I appreciate that you are trying to correct the revisionist history that we all grew up with. This needs to be repeated over and over until everyone in the world knows the truth. You stated above, "The more people who know the facts behind Hawaiʻi’s history...the better;" "I felt that the more non-Hawaiians could understand what really went on, the better;" "I wanted to keep the article simple and clear as to what happened;" and "My article isn’t a "brief". Itʻs meant to familiarize those who have not heard about Hawaiʻi’s history with what happened to the Kanaka Maoli." These statements make it clear that you are attempting to portray an accurate and factual history. In that vein, your statement that, “Hawaiʻi was annexed as a U.S. territory in 1898…” is in error and a continuation of the lies that the U.S. revisionists would have us all believe. If your aim is to tell the accurate truth, then don’t tell only part of it. Tell it all. There is no treaty of annexation as many other commenters have already pointed out. If there was, the U.S. would have produced it the numerous times they have been asked to. This fact isn’t a debate for lawyers, itʻs been proven. So, I ask you to correct this error as you corrected your error regarding Sanford Dole being the Dole pineapple baron. As you said, “It is always in the longterm (sic) interest of kanaka maoli that our history be presented correctly.” All of your statements above say you want to disseminate the truth, so don’t be another false historian only reporting what you’d like to or “believe” and turning a blind eye to the facts.

It would also have been good and more balanced if you had placed and as resources for others to learn from. Everything on the sites is fact based on extensive research and based on primary source materials – no Dr. Google or Wikipedia here. The blog listed keeps us knowledgeable on current events – as one of your commenters asked if anything has changed since Clinton’s apology – this is an excellent source of up to date events. There is also a book, Ua Mau Ke Ea: Sovereignty Endures by David Keanu Sai, PhD. that explains the actual and factual political history of Hawaiʻi. It is now used as a text for Hawaiian History courses in high schools, including Kamehameha Schools, and in the University of Hawaiʻi system –both at community colleges and at Mānoa.

Your response to that commentator was, “The Hawaiian people are still seeking some official recognition that we are a native people to the “Americas” like the Native Americans and Alaska natives.” This needs to be corrected in that there are SOME Hawaiian people who are seeking federal recognition……but many (as is evident through some of your commentators here) are seeking the return of our independence as we remain a sovereign nation under illegal occupation. It is also untrue to say that we are native to the Americas –as we were never a part of the “Americas.” We are located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean (not physically part of the “Americas”) and are a sovereign nation (not politically a part of the U.S. despite their control of our nation and their presence here). Ignoring facts in favor of a personal bias toward federal recognition (Fed Wreck) is also revisionist and makes your intent to educate suspect. If youʻre going to tell the truth, tell the WHOLE truth.

None of this is meant in disrespect for your efforts or opinion, but meant to correct the inaccuracies as you made it clear that you are trying to educate others on the truth. Mahalo nui no kou manaʻo a me mālama pono.

Oscar 2 years ago

When a government is overthrown it is always "illegal." Nothing unique there, it's been going on in every land since the beginning of human history. While making the Hawaiian language illegal was terrible, the rest of what came about with the overthrow turned out well for Hawaii. A democratically elected government is the best form of modern governing. What's left of old monarchies is more for show than actually running of the government. So I'd say the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy turned out well for the islands. No government is perfect, but Hawaii is now a part of one of the greatest nations in history and enjoys all of the perks that come along with it.

KKM 2 years ago

Oscar, The alleged annexation of 1898 was also illegal, because a treaty of cession was never procured. Furthermore, none of the Hawaiian Islands are named as defined territory of the "50th State" in the Organic Act of 1898, nor in the Statehood Act of 1959. Therefore, Hawaiʻi has never legally been part of the United States, even under its own laws. Consequently, Hawaiʻi has been under a prolonged and illegal occupation since August 12, 1898. Might does not make right, and a new democracy cannot be borne from an illegal occupation, to replace the preexisting democracy of the occupied nation-state.

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Hawaiian Scribe 2 years ago from Hawai'i Author

NOTE TO READERS OF THIS HUB: Mahalo nui for reading my article and for ALL of your comments. I do appreciate everyone's opinions and take them to heart. There have been many comments coming in lately, and I haven't had a chance to reply to them all. I will use my "author's prerogative" and correct my article as I see fit. Sometimes "facts and truth" are in the eye of the beholder. I suggest that anyone who has a website on the subject of Native Hawaiian rights or history, send me the link (as Pilialoha did above). If I feel that a website is a legitimate resource for readers of this article, I will add it to the Resources section at the end of my article after reviewing the website. All I ask is that you grant me a link back to my article in return. I only include links to relevant books selling on Amazon, so send me the url to your book and I will add it as a resource. For those who feel strongly on this subject and who may disagree with my portrayal, I have a better idea. Join Hubpages and become a writer on the subject. I make a decent passive income each month from the articles I write. The power of social media enlarges your reach to audiences; over 77,000 people have read this article on Native Hawaiians since I wrote it a year ago. If you use this url to join Hubpages (, I will get credit for you joining but you can join on your own at any time. Let me know when you become a writer and I'll link my articles to yours whenever appropriate. If you want to correspond with me on the subject of Hawai'i or Native Hawaiian rights, you can email me at Mai pa'a i ka leo - don't hold back your voice. Aloha no, Stephanie

KKM 2 years ago

I agree with Pilialoha that and should be added to the Resources list.

kauila 2 years ago

I had a really hard time reading this as there is so much misinformation here. "Hawaiian" is short for "Hawaiian Subject", which describes anyone who is a citizen of the Kingdom of Hawaii, regardless of race or ethnicity. If you look at the 1890 census, you'll see how the word "Hawaiian" was used correctly. 85% of Hawaiians were of aboriginal decent, while 15% of Hawaiians were of Asian, Caucasian, African, and other Polynesian decent. Hawaiian describes/described a person's citizenship, not ethnicity. That being said, Mr Dole was NOT an American citizen, but rather a Hawaiian subject. His citizenship allowed him to serve as a judge in the Hawaiian judicial branch. Furthermore, aboriginal Hawaiians are not an indigenous people. Indigenous people are peoples who have been colonized. Colonization is the extension of sovereignty into a territory that is NOT subject to another sovereign. Since Hawaii achieved sovereignty, the islands could not be colonized by another. Therefore, aboriginal Hawaiians are not indigenous because Hawaii was never colonized. To suggest aboriginal Hawaiians are indigenous is quite degrading and insulting to Hawaiian legal and political history because it implies Hawaii hadn't achieved independence. Lastly, Hawaii wasn't annexed. Annexation implies legality via a treaty of annexation; there's no such treaty. All that exists are U.S. congressional acts and resolutions being administered in a foreign country. Hawaii is occupied and this idea that we've been colonized, along with the idea of race and indigeneity has been "injected" into our minds by the U.S. Please update your information because I feel like this posting is only perpetuating the indoctrination and falsehoods.

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Hawaiian Scribe 2 years ago from Hawai'i Author

To my hoaaloha from the Kingdom of Hawai'i: I have allowed your comments and mana'o to be published on this article, but no more hijacking it. I am not the enemy. The links to your website are in previous comments for anyone who is interested to check out, but I will not list them as a Resource. I will also not approve any further comments debating the issue of whether Hawai'i was annexed or not (it was, illegally), whether Hawai'i is occupied by the U.S. (it is...), whether Hawaiians are indigenous to this 'aina (we are...), and whether we have gone through a process of colonization (we have...). This is my mana'o and it is equal to yours. In fact, on this page it is MORE equal than yours because I wrote this article. So like I said before, if you don't like it, write your own mana'o in a way that people will read it and want to learn more about your point of view. My hope is that, as Hawaiians, we will build on the common ground that we have instead of tearing down every bit of mana'o that does not agree with yours. Me ka ha'aha'a, Stephanie

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Hawaiian Scribe 2 years ago from Hawai'i Author

@AngelaKeen - Mahalo nui for your kind comments. I do enjoy writing about Hawai'i. I'm working on a hub called "Five Hawaiian Places to Put On Your Bucket List". Can you guess what they are? I changed this hub according to facts that were brought to my attention and that I verified should have been in there from the start. I believe that writers need to be accountable for what they write, and I'm glad HubPages gives us a chance to interact with readers through Comments. I hope we will stay in touch with each other. Anyone who loves Hawai'i is a friend of mine. Aloha, Stephanie

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Hawaiian Scribe 2 years ago from Hawai'i Author

@BlackSpaniel1 - I have read up a little on the controversy surrounding Hawaiian coinage being legal tender, but it looks like they would be worth more than their face value today anyway. How about doing a hub on coins of the Hawaiian Kingdom? Let me know if you do, and I will be glad to share it around the internet. Aloha, Stephanie

Gaylene Elaban 2 years ago

I am from Maui but living on the mainland.Came here to Georgia thru the military but stayed because the cost of living is a lot more affordable. I miss the beautiful islands and our 'ohana.It is a tragedy about what happened to the people of Hawaii however my personal opinion is if God allowed it who are we to challenge it? His ways are not our ways His thoughts are not our thoughts. He will make things right in His time and His way. It is a complicated issue I believe is best left to Him. Aloha Ke Akua

Don Boitano 2 years ago

Brent can you tell me where did the Hawaiian. people originally. Came from?

anonymous 2 years ago

@Don Boitano ; They originally came from the island of SAMOA, but unfortunately if asking Hawaiians MOST will tell you otherwise.

Vavega Sepetaio 2 years ago

They came from Samoa. Samoan's are the original Hawaiians. Sorry bruh it's true. Love Hawaii regardless. Unfortunately Hawaii is a man made culture and language.

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Hawaiian Scribe 2 years ago from Hawai'i Author

The best archaeological evidence available today points to the first "Hawaiians" sailing to these islands from the Marquesas Islands. Samoans, Tongans and other South Pacific islanders didn't build canoes big enough or sturdy enough to sail very far from their islands. The Marquesas Islands are situated in a location far enough east that there is a major current from there to Hawai'i that could have been their highway here. This probably happened within a few centuries after 300 A.D. or so. @Vavega Sepetaio: Every culture and language is man-made. My husband (and children) are Samoan, and I love the culture. But Samoans are NOT the original Hawaiians.

Madeleine Desrochers 2 years ago

I'm a great grandmother from Canada...I'm learning now to day of this side of your history... thanks to my niece and her family who are now living in Hawaii...never to old to learn...Madeleine Desrochers

Palmer Walker 2 years ago

Hawaiian Scribe...

You have a new fan....Thank you.

j carvalho 2 years ago

as a 4th generation Portuguese. hawaii born and raised. my great grand mother was a maid for the Queen when she was imprisoned. my grandmother would not tell us much but always would say the queen was very nice to them and was in such pain.

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NiaLee 2 years ago from BIG APPLE

j carvalho thank you for your testimony, we learn a little more about the Queen and populations that were and are in Hawaii. I am very sad Hawaii and the Queen were treated this way. The revival of the Hawaiian culture is a priority.

Butch 2 years ago

I simply feel that this has merit and I hope and pray everyone involved has a like mind and are operating totally above board. I would love to see nothing better than the """awesome""" Hawaiians whom I have gotten to know here after 25 years here have their day in court so to speak. No matter which way it goes, we know such as the Native American Indians in the plains states were totally killed and removed from their lands in a huge """"strong arm takeover!'' My heart goes out to all the kanaka maoli and the most beautiful people -keiki as well as us kupuna-I have gotten to know on this planet that they can finally find true peace in their hearts and stay just as beautiful as I have gotten to know all of you. My sincerest best wishes to everyone in the Hawaiian Kingdom of Hawaii and I have gotten to know and be pals with so many including Mr. Kanahele who I truly and totally ADMIRE so very much. He is one fine and very awesome representative of Hawaii and he is such a true and total gentleman. My life has been so enriched by uniting with my beautiful Hawaiian Family and now I will admit we are truly and totally a HAWAIIAN OHANA (((FAMILY))). No one can separate us and we have all become blood brothers here in the most awesome way and I will never short change or want to see these fine and awesome and so upstanding people left hanging but only receive justice for their plight. God bless and Madam Pele I salute you for your total and awesome love for us and we have tried even as this wild and crazy HAOLE ((white man with no breath hahalol the literal translation) I have become closest to my brothers and sisters here of true Hawaiian Ancestry and like true family we can all fight like cats and dogs but hey we are BRUDDAHS who will never allow anyone from the outside take over. My sincerest and fondest peace and light and truest deep down LOVE to all my Hawaiian OHANA from all 8 islands in this magnificent chain of PARADISE. To ALL of my Hawaiian Family you have my undying support for justice and true PEACE. - Let's make sure we show LOVE first up front the same kind of totally """"UNCONDITIONAL LOVE""""'I received from my most awesome parents and that is in my new book AMERICAS FIRST FAMILY OF ADOPTIONS Piva's Portant People. This book will show you how and why I consider my Hawaiian FAMILY OHANA so super close to me since I have had the best with my beautiful parents and brother who adopted me as I have been adopted here in HAWAII. Love to all with deepest affection and my sincerest love and best aloha to all- with so much total UNCONDITIONAL LOVE for all of you RICKY PIVA -the new book is available on Kindle or in hard copy from AMAZON or direct from me yours truly the author - deep down affection and love Rick

wray 2 years ago

A'ole pilikia is not "you're welcome" a'ole isles "no" pilikia is trouble.

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Robert Levine 24 months ago from Brookline, Massachusetts

Hawaiian Scribe, I don't think it's accurate that Sanford Dole is the only American to serve as president of a foreign nation. Sam Houston was president of the Republic of Texas from 1836 until the U.S. annexed it in 1845, I believe, and the adventurer William Walker managed to seize control of Nicaragua for about a year in 1859 or 1860.

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Hawaiian Scribe 24 months ago from Hawai'i Author

@Robert Levine: Thank you for correcting me and pointing out other instances of American imperialism in foreign countries. I have removed the errant sentence. Aloha, Stephanie

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Jerry Ferro 23 months ago from Hilo, Hawaii

Mahalo Stephanie for this work. It is very supportive mana`o which I hope and pray causes others who become enlightened from it to stand with us to demand our sovereign, free nation without foreign and u.s. involvement. I am 3rd generation Aupuni who can remember my kupuna shaking their heads at the military presence of the u.s. in the 40ies. They taught me of the Hewa and instilled in my pu`uwai the desire for national and cultural freedom. Ho`omaika`i.

Kaulana 23 months ago

Hawaii has always been an independent nation. No real annexation took place because there is no treaty.

Godfrey Aukai Aiona 23 months ago

My birth was in Honolulu and raised in South Bay Area, Palo Alto and Cupertino. We lacked nothing from our Hawaiian roots. Santa Clara, Hui ilima Club, my Parents, Ohana, and my Aunty Alesna Halau kept the Aloha spirit fresh and alive. I am proud of my Hawaiian culture because Ohana and my Christian ethics are very similar. Our Ohana shed blood for this country and now we have a President that is hell bent to destroy us, God before us who can be against us. We will see.

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Hawaiian Scribe 23 months ago from Hawai'i Author

I, too, would like to see national and cultural freedom for kanaka maoli in my lifetime. I have always felt that if more people outside of Hawai'i understand the true history of Hawai'i, it can only help us. I'm not great at sign-waving or making political speeches, but I can write in a non-threatening way. Doing my part. Aloha mau loa, Stephanie

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Hawaiian Scribe 23 months ago from Hawai'i Author

You have been blessed to have been raised in the culture. We are Hawaiian no matter how far from home. Aloha pumehana, Stephanie

Jessie Kapahua 23 months ago

I thank you for sharing such a small piece of Hawaiian History with the rest of the world and to all who want to learn. This isn't widely discussed in school but not much of the Hawaiian people know some truth of what took place before the arrival of Cook.

myra -ann kiaaina 23 months ago


My name is Myra-ann Kiaaina I am probably the last generation of pure hawaiian people. This story has really touched my heart, made me angry because of what happened and gave some insite of what my ohana should know. I knew a little of what had happened. I also watched the movie that was made princess kai'ulani in which it had sadden me for our people Iand for her it was emotional. I'm glad that president Clinton recognized us. But as so many years later Hawaii was already americanized. But we still have hope for some things. I wish that I was alive to witness what had happened because I would have wanted to make a difference for my people or do something. But thank you very much for writing this for people to know and learn. Aloha

momi 23 months ago

When I first read your article, I thought awesome! Then as I read the comment's I'm confused on opinions vs facts. I come away with frustration and no longer interested in the past.

kahiwahiwa makanui 23 months ago

Every body in the world needs to see this!

Kupono 23 months ago

Good read except for Aloha Oe was not written by Anapau during her internment , but at Maunawili years before. Please refer to He Buke Mele The Queens song book compiled by Mary Kawena Pukui and Aunty Dorothy Kahananui at the request of Her Majesty to verify this.

Noe 23 months ago

I have koko(blood) and therefore am Kanaka Maoli. I was born in HonoluluTH(the time when it was declared to be Territory of Hawaii) and therefore am more than Kama'aina. I as many like me am, Maka'ainana - of the populace. It is a term that is not mentioned in the brief and could serve to clarify many like Jennifer.

I found your writing to be well done and presented with what I believe was the intent of sharing knowledge. I also believe that part of your intent was to give us pause to think, question and research on our own.

I saw some, but not glaring mistakes. I read many constructive criticisms and many comments that lashed out. I thank you for reeling it back to the intent - no apologies needed from you as far as I am concerned.

In an ideal world, we would ALL take on the kuleana(responsibility and accountability) of saying and doing what is best for the Maka'aina. But that is not the case. However we can, as you have, express our opinions.

E holo mua kākou I ka pō me ke ao.

Let us move forward together from not knowing(night) into knowing(day)

olepau58 23 months ago


Tinae 23 months ago

I was born in Quenes Hospital on Oahu before Hawaii became a state. I am of Hawaiian blood and have lived the life of a kanaka Maoli on the Island before joining the Military and am proud of all those who did and still serving . I have read this post for the first time and solute you for this informative tribute concerning the History of our Island and its people. I believe your post brings outs opinions and facts from those that are knowledgeable on this subject. I would like those with these Knowledge and are responding to keep in mind that this is an educational growth to make us all understand our cultural roots and the journey our OHANA's have been through, Please keep it respectful for we are KANAKA MAOLI and we all Love this Island. Mahalo

4myohana 23 months ago


hawaii's history was always messed up... there's a reason why they don't want you to know...

you must learn your pass to know your future... and are my fav to learn hawaiian history... dr sai will take you from kamehameha l to today... he has the paper work that backs up what he says and he adds humor to his talks

but... the most exciting piece of hawaiian history i ever came across was uncle buzzy agard...

hope this helps your readers


Ane 23 months ago

Mahalo nui for this informational writing. Too many do not know the facts behind this illegal overthrow. I am haole who married a man of pure kanaka maoli ancestry whose first language was Hawaiian.

Carolyn 23 months ago

I enjoyed this hub and reading other people's comments. We the "Hawaiian people" and "Hawaiian people at heart" need to stick together, stand together and rise together. The article had some false statements, many criticized however for the most part it; this is what happened to our Hawai'i and Hawaiian people. This was very informative. The way you have come across, as if you want to chop her head off!! We should be great fully appreciative on what the main point was from this article. I've only read very few nice comments, we should have this same mana to come together where our voice becomes louder and stronger. One thing I want to say to all, if you are born or raised somewhere, it doesn't mean your that nationality. It's what's in your blood from your mother and father that makes your nationality. Seems that many people can't get it right on born, raised or lived for one, five, twenty years somewhere. Example: If your father is Hawaiian and mother is Japaneese but your born in Korea that does not mean your Korean!! Mahalo Stephanie

Puaalawailani 23 months ago

Hawaiianscribe: Bless you for telling the past history of Native Hawaiians and Hawaiians wherever they may be. My mom was pure Hawaiian from the Big Island; my grandparents were Hawaiians; my great grandparents were Hawaiians. Unfortunately, they all passed on too early in life. I have always been proud to be Hawaiian and as I have grown older and somewhat wiser, I have come to the realization that whatever I learned about our past history as Hawaiian isn't fully known. Your writings and those of other historians of Hawaiian history continue to nourish our desire and knowledge to want to know and learn more...topics and issues we weren't fully aware of. It is truly amazing to finally be able to see documents and videos that educate (us) me. I also admire your tactfulness in explaining and restating your conviction in what you write; but also allowing differences in opinions from others. However, the main purpose of this hub page (for me) is to learn more and discover the unknown (untruths as well) and seek more information through resources and links. And I think I have found it here! Thank you for your tireless efforts and passion for the history of Hawaii and its people.Aloha!

KanakaMaoliOhanaHāne 23 months ago

Mahalo for all this info. links, facts & current updates/ actions. Profound. Truth shall prevail... as a strong peaceful Hawaiian Kingdom Nation continues to operate in Pono, Lawful ways of our existence, cultural & spiritual practices, and positive actions to manage and maintain our own "Country/Islands" as we did before being illegally occupied & displaced by false operations called a "State" by imposters/ illegal Businessmen-turned-Government from a foreign/ known country called the UNitedStatesOfAmerica. Mahalo.

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Besarien 23 months ago

Mahalo for a great hub debunking much of the "official history" taught about Hawaii. I look forward to reading more from you.

Keahi Felix 22 months ago

Aloha. May I have permission from the author to quote her article in its entirety in the book I am planning to write? It will be my second book. Title not yet cemented. First published book was called: "Wahine Noa: for the life of my county."

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Hawaiian Scribe 22 months ago from Hawai'i Author

@Keahi Felix: Mahalo nui for your request. Send me an email at and let's communicate. Always interested in wahine authors who move us forward. Aloha mau loa, Stephanie

Pakelekia808 22 months ago

Mahalo for a succinct and truthful article! I've reread it several times, and have forwarded it to interested friends. As a Kama'aina, my Portuguese ancestors had been living in Hawaii for about 15 years when the highly illegal overthrow came about - and I've never understood why the wrongs haven't been made right by the US government. I'll be following your hub with great interest. Mahalo...Pakelekia808

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Hawaiian Scribe 22 months ago from Hawai'i Author

@Pakelekia808 Mahalo nui for your comments and for your kind support of Native Hawaiian self-determination. The U.S. government is not known for reversals of their land grabs in the past. Hawaii is in a most strategic location for militarization. They won't give it up anytime soon. Meanwhile, we educate the next generation... Aloha, Stephanie

Sofia 21 months ago

I would like to cite this as a source for a project. What was the date this was published?

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Hawaiian Scribe 21 months ago from Hawai'i Author

@ Sofia: This article was first published on 1-18-13 and was last updated on 11-10-14 with the section "Ongoing Efforts by Kanaka Maoli" added. Mahalo nui for your comment and for citing this in your project. Aloha, Stephanie

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Unlimited11-11 19 months ago from Lake Champlain, Vermont, USA

Mahalo nui loa for this informative and well-written hub.

Hawai'i is one of the most beautiful and spiritual places on earth. When there, I always feel privileged that I have been able to share in her majesty.

The tragic events of the past cannot be forgotten.

Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina i ka Pono.

Lee Cloak 19 months ago

Fantastic hub, very interesting, very strong stuff, thank you!

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Hawaiian Scribe 19 months ago from Hawai'i Author

Mahalo nui @Unlimited11-11!

Thank you for reading this hub and commenting on it.

Aloha mau loa,


kustom 19 months ago

I just read this article for the 2nd. time. My Grandfather purchased property in the late 60's early 70's on Maui. We lived on the mainland and would go to visit Maui. When we went to visit their house in CA. I remember flipping through the Hawaii language books that they had on the coffee table and trying to pronounce words. We listened to Hawaii music and attended "wanna be" Luahs. Through the years it seems that every family member (including me) has moved to Hawaii or has at least spent a significant amount of time there. We have embraced this sacred culture and it has become part of my identity. The problem is that, no matter how much I love and respect Hawaii, I have no Hawaiian blood. My presence and our ownership of land violate the Hawaiian Sovereign Nation and it's indigenous people. It seems the greatest respect I could show is to not ever return. But it's my "home", my loved ones are buried in it's ocean.

Thanks for the great article.

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Hawaiian Scribe 18 months ago from Hawai'i Author

@kustom: Aloha aina kāua. Mahalo nui for your obvious love for Hawai’i. We need more people on our islands like you, not fewer. My problem is with the U.S. government and state of Hawai’i who continue to perpetuate the illegal overthrow of the Hawaiian nation, and refuse to recognize the inherent rights of the kanaka maoli. Mahalo for reading this hub (twice). Malama pono. Stephanie

jj 18 months ago

Please please never ever ever agree to be reconginzed as like the american indians..even they do not relate to the term anerican indians.. have you ever seen an indian reservation.. its soo poor and sad.. the worst neglected are better off the way you are now.. don't ever agree to it..

kamanalo 16 months ago

The natives of America are not 'Indians'. They are Americans. Indians come from India, not America. And the white people in America are not Americans; they are Europeans.

Kim 16 months ago

hi there,

I'm writing a vampire novella set on a small unnamed Hawaiian island. prior to this I knew virtually nothing about Hawaii. part of the fun of writing what you don't know is learning about it! and I've learned quite a bit during my searches. of course there will always be more to learn, which is why I'm here. if you don't ask, you'll never find out.

next let me say, if I could make a blanket apology on behalf of the U.S., I would. unfortunately it's so much larger than me. my novella is not an apology per se, in fact it's mostly from the perspective of continental Americans (one of whom was born on the island), but I'm hoping it will at least wake some people up to the issue who might never have thought about it.

what I would know and understand is this: what exactly would you have happen here? the past can't be erased. decimation can't be undone (as much as I wish it could). colonization has taken place. economics and structures are in place. bloodlines are crossed dozens of times over.

so what exactly would you have happen? I've heard people talk about sovereignty, but what exactly do you mean by that? who exactly would you have in charge, and how would that be decided? do you go back to a monarchy, where family DNA decides who is a ruler and who is untouchable, or would you formally adopt democracy? what happens to people born on the islands who have European or Asian DNA and have never known any other home? are they Hawaiians, or not? do they have Hawaiian rights, or not? do you completely banish the U.S. from your shores, or would you consider a bona fide treaty done the legal way? are there groups dedicated to actually bringing these things about? grassroots or official? what exactly are they doing to bring it about? aside from education, as you are doing here.

I don't expect you to speak on behalf of all Hawaiians, of course, any more than I can speak on behalf of the entire U.S. but as much as I've learned while writing this novella, there are some things that a book or website just won't tell you. I've read a lot of flowery rhetoric over the course of my writing. I would like to go beyond that.

Miz Priya 15 months ago

Thank you for writing this. The only thing I would say differently is that you don't have to be Kanaka Maoli to support and advocate for the native Hawaiian people. I identify as Kama'aina American. I belong to the land of my birth, it does not belong to me. ❤ Mahalo.

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Lori down 15 months ago from Utah


Thank you for this well written Hub. I knew next to nothing about the islands. I have never been fortunate enough to visit. It has always been a dream to go there some day.

I have a very good friend who was born in Hawaii. Perhaps some day, my daughter and I will be lucky enough to visit.

You have taught me a lot about the history of your beautiful home. I hope you will get justice some day.

Thank you, once again for educating me. I will continue to read, and, educate myself. You are a beautiful writer.

Thank you


15 months ago

Americans settlers were not simply European, they came from many lands before Europe, they were and are as all people, native earth. We are all of the same origin and all the dialogue about race ethnicity etc... Is racist and self serving protectionism. We are all native earth. Native Hawaiians, have some great wonderful people in their history, but there have been abuses and people of poor character originating from the culture just as there have been from Europeans, Africans, American Indians, etc... We need to shed race and ethnicity centric dialogue and become one homoginous people and quit living in the past waiting for reimbursement for historic wrongs. The American Indians were not one unified peaceful people- they had many disputed with each other, war with each other, stole, raped each others women, and disagreed over territory. The law of the land was who could defend the territory could own it. A significant number found a way to have peace, but a significant number chose a violent path to take what they wanted. All people of all cultures have demonstrated historic similarities to what the "white" Europeans brought. All of are good and bad. What destroys us all most today is the deplorable focus on how special, unique and entitled we are due to a particular ethnicity or skim color. We are creating silos, special clubs of exclusivity based on all the wrong things. I cant change what an evil king and a tax enforcing family clan perpetuated on some of my ancestors hundreds of years ago, but the good news is that I don't live in that past world anymore..i live today, free to define my future and the current and treat people right and be responsible for what I do today and not look to distinguish myself by my ethnic or cultural roots as an identity of who I am and what I deserve. Our kids are all paying attention to all these infantile discussions of what race or ethnicity we are and why those things should bring us special benefits...this is the wrong message to send them and as a result, they will continue to perpetuate those damaging attitudes and lean on ideals focused on getting things due to skin color and heritage vs being an all loving healthy, productive person. Start this movement ...we are all native earth!

Kamaka 15 months ago

To the author of the last comment.... "T".... May I quote you? What have you done to start this movement?

15 months ago

I teach my children to respect all people based on the content of thier character and to let go of identity based on skin or ethnicity and not to live in the past. I challenge all people to do the same.

jcrunch 15 months ago

One very small correction to your article: Lili'uokalani's statue does indeed face the Hawai'i state capitol building. I just visited Iolani Palace earlier this month, and took pictures of the statue. I was struck by the fact that the statue is on (it appears) capitol grounds, land owned and operated by the state that is a part of the country that illegally annexed her sovereign country. Ironic. I've taken to believing that her statue's proud countenance is merely a statement of determination, an artful rendering of her belief in her people and the righteousness of her cause--as Hawaiians today might say of her look, she appears to be showing some "stink eye" in the general direction of the government which helped end her reign, and to the whole concept of anyone taking Hawaiians' sovereignty away. (I know, probably not her style....)

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Hawaiian Scribe 15 months ago from Hawai'i Author

@T: Thank you for your comment. I have found that most people who say "I donʻt want to live in the past" are usually of the same nationality as those being accused of some wrongdoing. In your case, Iʻm assuming that you are white. But it makes no difference, because the Native Hawaiian argument has nothing to do with "skin color", as you put it. Itʻs not a race issue. It is an issue of Americaʻs illegal overthrow of a foreign government and the effect that has had on the native people of Hawaiʻi. You might want to read "Overthrow - Americaʻs Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq" by Stephen Kinzer. Since the U.S. has now reopened diplomatic relations with a communist country (Cuba), and negotiated a nuclear treaty with the worldʻs biggest supporter of terrorism (Iran), perhaps there is hope for the U.S. to reopen diplomatic relations with a peaceful nation that it had no business overthrowing and occupying (Hawaiʻi).

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Hawaiian Scribe 15 months ago from Hawai'i Author

Thank you ʻLori downʻ for your kind comments. I do hope that you and your daughter will visit Hawaiʻi someday. Keep in touch and let me know if you get to the islands; I will make myself available to show you around. Aloha, Stephanie

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Lori down 15 months ago from Utah

Thank You so much, Stephanie!! I really hope we can come visit soon. As I said, it has been a life long dream.

My friend from Hawaii has sort of adopted me into her family since we were in the same High School. Her children think of me as "Aunty Lori", even though I haven't seen them for 25 years, or, even met some of them. It is a wonderful feeling for me. I have always admired her sense of community and love.

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Canita Pro 15 months ago from Pompano Beach, Florida

Really enjoyed the tribute to the queen video.

Hstephens 15 months ago

I love Hawaii and I have been there over 30 times. Great story, but you do not mention that president Cleveland offered the thrown back to the queen and she refused. There were stipulations , but the fact still remains. God bless Hawaii and I hope there is a solution where it remains a state

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Hawaiian Scribe 15 months ago from Hawai'i Author

@Hstephens: Thank you for your comment. I could find no historical evidence that President Grover Cleveland "offered the thrown (sic) back to the queen and she refused." Cleveland was definitely of the opinion that America had wrongly overthrown the Hawaiian government, but he left it up to Congress to decide the matter. And the rest is history...

aku 15 months ago

Hawaii voted to become a state in 1959. The vote was 93 percent in favor, thus ending the issue of weather Hawaiians wanted to be part of the United States or not. This talk of a separate Kingdom is a red herring. No different than me wanting to not pay taxes to a Federal Government that I didn't vote for.

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globalfuture 15 months ago from Jakarta Selatan

This article is very touching and important, because many of the events that made the original inhabitants of a country or the area around us, even in developed countries like the United States or other countries such as China that have made the natives or indigenous people as second class citizens, even changing their original cultural identity. Whether the United Nations or non-governmental organizations can save a case like this anywhere else?

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Hawaiian Scribe 15 months ago from Hawai'i Author

@aku: Thanks for your comment and for reading this article. Please note that my article does not advocate for a separate kingdom, but does give links to other groups in favor of solutions that may not popular with a majority of people. After all, this is American democracy, no? Free speech? I would like to note that the 93% favorable vote in 1959 for statehood included a small minority of Hawaiian/part Hawaiians. By then, the cultural genocide, native population decrease, and immigrant in-migration had already left its mark on the islands. At the time of the annexation in 1898, the remaining 40,000 Native Hawaiians voted overwhelmingly NOT to be annexed by the U.S., but Congress and the U.S. President disregarded them. Sixty years later at the statehood vote, colonialism had taken its toll.

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travelours 15 months ago from Egypt

Great article , i love this nice and value information thank you for sharing this post

Aukai 15 months ago

Thank you for Sharing, Great article

AustinKalani 12 months ago

Cook didn't land at Kealakakua in 1778. He landed near Waimea, Kaua'i. Left to find a non-existent Northwest Passage for a year, then returned to Hawai'i. He landed at Kealakakua in 1779.

Min Soo 12 months ago

This is very well done. All the time and effort which you put in has produced an amazing piece of work. There is one comment I wish to make about the overthrow, I am not a history expert and I have not done as much research as you have so I may not be factually correct. The overthrow was led by citizens of the Kingdom also because at the time, anyone born in the Kingdom was a citizen and considered to be Hawaiian. Lorrin A. Thurston was actually the leader of the overthrow and with help from family/friends/business relationships on the East Coast of the U.S., he was able to have the U.S. gun boat in Honolulu Harbor but the military personnel did not actually come ashore. Sanford Dole was brought in after the overthrow and asked to be the first leader of the Territory/Republic because of his relationship with the Hawaiian people. He did not actually participate in the overthrow as a major factor until the Territory/Republic was established. He was asked to do so because, at the time, he had many Hawaiians working for him on his plantation and he had good relationships with many families on both sides during these turbulent times. Thurston's letters reveal much of this unknown history and there was once a documentary based on these letters from PBS Hawaii. It was narrated by Leslie Wilcox but I cannot remember what the name of the piece was called. Thank you for sharing your work and creating a place for others to come to learn about the wonderful history of the Islands and the Native/native Hawaiian people.

Min Soo 12 months ago

I am commenting to ask that you please remove my last comment. I have spoken up and I need to do more research because I am unable to find the documentary which I referred to. Without that as reference, I do not wish to create any issue which I cannot provide a reference source which my comment is based on. Mahalo..

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ValKaras 9 months ago from Canada

Born and raised in a European country and now living in Canada, I spent my childhood admiring Hawaiian music and what Hawai'i stood for, with their culture and the pristine beauty of its islands. I am 71 now, and only 3 years ago I finally had my first opportunity to visit that land of my dreams. I asked a Hawaiian young woman in her hula clothing to take a picture with me, and that photo is now enlarged and framed in my living room.

Sorry this is not a direct comment to your hub, but I hope it serves as an indication of how I sympathize with your people, while hoping to see Hawaii again as soon as possible. Mahalo for the great and informative hub.

ʻŌnikiniki 5 months ago

MAHALO NUI LOA e Stephanie Launiu no kēia! He mea NUI no ka a'o 'ana o nā po'e a'ole maopopo i ka 'oiai'o. Aloha au ia 'oe no ka wehewehe 'ana o nā pilikia no na kanaka hawai'i ♡♡♡♡

Kalauokalani 5 months ago

There is NO TREATY OF ANNEXATION! HAWAII IS OCCUPIED BY THE UNITED STATES! HAWAII IS NOT PART OF THE US! This is international law... no different from how the Baltic States were not part of the Soviet Union. Just like how Crimea is not part of Russia. Hawaii never became or conceded to become part of the US. That can only happen by treaty. There is no treaty. There is only a Joint Resolution. A Newlands resolution drafted by the racist Francis Newlands. A Joint Resolution lacks the power to take another country. The U.S. uses paradise propaganda to mask their involvement in stealing an entire nation. It's Genocide. What happened in Iraq happened in Hawai'i in 1893, puppet governments, illegal intervention,

Twizz 4 months ago

Thank you for enlightening, and for the Ukulele.

Happy Days, Twizz.

Oscar Pedro Larghi 3 months ago

Kamehamenha I also signed a Peace ance Commerce treaty with Argentina in 1817, Being the first king to recongnize the young new nation, My respect to him!

susan Cane 3 months ago

Hi, just came back from Kauai and was wondering where did all the Hawaiian people go? I see a lot of Filipino people dancing as Hawaiians but no Hawaiians!

Kika Wai'Alae 2 months ago

Hawaii still is a sovereign nation in continuity today. We are currently working on forcing the US to comply to the law of occupation. We have been in international courts system proving our status of a nation. A joint resolution is all the US has to claim Hawaii. A treaty is needed and does not exist due to the Ku'e patition that was written about earlier. To find current events go to mahalo for writing this article but it goes much deeper at least this is a start. The Lance Larcen v the Hawaiian Kindom faced arbitration in the Netherland. That case was used as an example in the South China Sea v the Philippines recently. All can be found on

Judith Strauch Diess 2 months ago

Correction on Hawaii State History taught in Hawaii Public Schools. There were several types of public schools in the Islands. Local, Rural, and English Speaking or as we called them Haole. Roosevelt was considered Haole as well as Kalani. There were also ones near military bases Like Redford High, Called a Haole School. Kaimuki, McKinley, Farrington, for example were local. Lots of pigin spoken there by teachers as well as students. We did have Hawaiian classes available compliments of Mr. Baker. We also had watered down Hawaii State History that was mandatory to pass if you wanted to graduate High School. It was taught senior year. Most of my childhood education was in the islands including pre-school located in 1947 at Lanikai Beach house on the beach. I was at Kaimuki High from 1960-1964. I was then sent to the mainland to college to hopefully, quit speaking pigin. I flunked English comp. in college many times before passing. In 5th grade Hawaiian culture was also taught including ukulele. Hula was taught in PE class as a part of dance. Something else in High School you had to pass to graduate High School. I still have a deep love for my Hawaii roots.

HaoleTom 2 months ago

This is an interesting and detailed article, but sadly, it's one-sided and ignores some mistakes on the part of the Hawaiian royalty themselves. David Kalakaua was quite ambitious and wasn't opposed to stacking the deck in his government to get his way. He was also angling for a niece of his to marry Japanese roaylty with the apparent hope that Japan would annex the islands, which may have been a horrible mistake. Likewise, Liliokalani was given an offer by the US to return Hawaii to a kingdom status, I believe by President Grover Cleveland, but she delayed in an over-emotional reaction. By the time she agreed, the US assumed she was not going to reply to their offer and went ahead with annexation. Yes, much of what the US did was wrong, but the leaders that the Hawaiian peoploe trusted were not blameless.

Maryann 8 weeks ago

Thank you for this information. I took my first trip to Hawaii this summer and learned about Eddie Aukai. I became fascinated with his legacy. Which led to the learning about Hokulea, which led to the history of the Hawaiian people. I am looking forward to learning more. Thanks for the links and sources.

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Hawaiian Scribe 8 weeks ago from Hawai'i Author

Thank you Maryann. I'm glad you finally had a chance to visit Hawaii, and that you learned about Eddie Aikau, the Hokule'a, the Hawaiian people and on and on. Aloha...

Sheri Wahinekapu 6 weeks ago

Mahalo nui loa for a precise presentation of our culture, our people and our history. This information allows everyone, kanaka maoli and haole to read and understand FACTS. I ask that this be shared around the world in order to gain more support for our home. My na mo'opuna will read this and the seed will be planted if it hasn't yet and they will have a foundation of where they came from, who they are and figure out how they can contribute to the perpetuation of our culture. Mahalo, mahalo, mahalo ame Mahalo ke Akua

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Hawaiian Scribe 6 weeks ago from Hawai'i Author

Mahalo for your kind comments Sheri Wahinekapu. When people read a concise presentation of the facts, the great majority will see a clear picture of a nation wronged. I have also planted "the seed" in my mo'opuna. You and I may not be here to see the full-grown tree, but the tree will grow and fruit. About that I am sure...aloha no, Stephanie

Paul- Kapolei 9 days ago

What a fantastic article along with wonderful dialogue! I'm a transplanted mainlander of European descent, but I think I have a Hawaiian soul. I'm proud to live here, feel a bit guilty about "owning" a piece of this sacred land, and hope that there's a place for my family when sovereignty comes!

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    Stephanie Launiu (Hawaiian Scribe)168 Followers
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    Stephanie Launiu is a Native Hawaiian lifestyle & cultural writer. She has a degree in Hawaiian Pacific Studies. She lives on O'ahu.

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