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Château de Chambord: A Mighty Castle in the Loire Valley of France

Updated on May 1, 2017
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FlourishAnyway welcomes the opportunity to travel both stateside and abroad and especially enjoys documenting her fun through photography.

Chambord: The Big Daddy of the Loire Valley Châteaux

King Francis took great interest in the construction of Chambord which began in 1519.  He died in 1547.  The castle was still incomplete after 28 years.
King Francis took great interest in the construction of Chambord which began in 1519. He died in 1547. The castle was still incomplete after 28 years. | Source

Almost Done: The 28-Year Pet Project of King Francis I

Have you ever had a pet project that seemed to drag on and on? A project that you continually worked on but ... let's be completely honest here ... you will never actually complete?

Maybe it's perfectionism, love of the process, or simply biting off more than you can chew. Whatever the case, the project gets stuck at 90% done. Or even less.

When my family and I visited Château de Chambord on a day trip from Paris, I was relieved to learn that even the royals have had those never ending projects.

In 1519, when 25-year-old King Francis I embarked on the construction of Château de Chambord, little did he expect it would be his lifelong endeavor. The expansive château was a project that took on a life of its own and required a construction team of 1,800 men.1

Mighty Chambord: Where Persistence Meets Luxury

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Chambord stands as a synthesis of medieval and Renaissance architecture.Francis only spent 72 days at Chambord and never saw his lifelong project completed.Chambord looks like the grand structure that it is today because of King Henry II (Francis' son) and King Louis XIV.  They were both avid hunters, too. Chambord has a central tower (or "keep").  The keep is surrounded by four towers and two wings (a chapel wing and a royal wing).  A curtain wall connects the structures.Francis intended for Chambord's roofline to resemble the skyline of Constantinople (now Istanbul) with its various gables, chimneys, spires, and mix of other structures.
Chambord stands as a synthesis of medieval and Renaissance architecture.
Chambord stands as a synthesis of medieval and Renaissance architecture. | Source
Francis only spent 72 days at Chambord and never saw his lifelong project completed.
Francis only spent 72 days at Chambord and never saw his lifelong project completed. | Source
Chambord looks like the grand structure that it is today because of King Henry II (Francis' son) and King Louis XIV.  They were both avid hunters, too.
Chambord looks like the grand structure that it is today because of King Henry II (Francis' son) and King Louis XIV. They were both avid hunters, too. | Source
Chambord has a central tower (or "keep").  The keep is surrounded by four towers and two wings (a chapel wing and a royal wing).  A curtain wall connects the structures.
Chambord has a central tower (or "keep"). The keep is surrounded by four towers and two wings (a chapel wing and a royal wing). A curtain wall connects the structures. | Source
Francis intended for Chambord's roofline to resemble the skyline of Constantinople (now Istanbul) with its various gables, chimneys, spires, and mix of other structures.
Francis intended for Chambord's roofline to resemble the skyline of Constantinople (now Istanbul) with its various gables, chimneys, spires, and mix of other structures. | Source

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Royal Hunting Lodge ... Seriously?

The king built Chambord partially because he wanted to be closer to his married mistress, the Countess of Thoury, Claude Rohan. She lived on an adjoining property. Primarily, however, he built it as a flamboyant hunting lodge and location for large receptions.

For the next 28 years, the king patiently monitored Chambord's construction. While he waited, Francis fought in the Italian wars, transformed the Louvre into a Renaissance marvel, and attracted prominent writers and artists such as Leonardo da Vinci to France.

He also kept busy by financing expeditions to the New World, persecuting Protestants, and maintaining an ongoing personal feud with Charles V (King of the Holy Roman Empire).2

Ah, but there was always Chambord.

Like Old Times: Renaissance Actors at Chambord

Click thumbnail to view full-size
After touring the castle, we bought gelato and watched the costumed actors on horses.Costumed actors on horseback roam the château property and interact with visitors. Actors make the visit memorable for kids and adults alike. This lovely horse knows just where to stand for photos and even said "cheese."
After touring the castle, we bought gelato and watched the costumed actors on horses.
After touring the castle, we bought gelato and watched the costumed actors on horses. | Source
Costumed actors on horseback roam the château property and interact with visitors.
Costumed actors on horseback roam the château property and interact with visitors. | Source
Actors make the visit memorable for kids and adults alike.
Actors make the visit memorable for kids and adults alike. | Source
 This lovely horse knows just where to stand for photos and even said "cheese."
This lovely horse knows just where to stand for photos and even said "cheese." | Source

A Royal Priority

Chambord was such a regal priority that nothing could stop its progress.3 Not the royal treasury's near bankruptcy. Not even the huge ransom to free the king's two sons who "replaced" him as a hostage in Spain.

As fundraising, the king pillaged church coffers and put appointments and offices up for sale (e.g., the role of magistrate).4 Construction continued, regardless of the country's financial wellbeing.

So grand was the king's plan that he even had visions of diverting the Loire River to the front of his château. He settled instead for the Cousson River, a mere tributary.5

Regal Elegance at Chambord

Click thumbnail to view full-size
The bedroom of King Francis I.Ceremonial bedroom of Louis XIV.  Also an avid hunter, Louis XIV later helped make Chambord look like it does today.  He used the same architect that designed Versailles.Lavish royal apartments were unfurnished in King Francis' day, as the windows to the castle were open.  Large hunting parties had to bring their own furniture with them.Ornamental wood-fueled fireplaces like this one ineffectively heated the massive castle.Bust of Louis XIV, one of the owners of Chambord.
The bedroom of King Francis I.
The bedroom of King Francis I. | Source
Ceremonial bedroom of Louis XIV.  Also an avid hunter, Louis XIV later helped make Chambord look like it does today.  He used the same architect that designed Versailles.
Ceremonial bedroom of Louis XIV. Also an avid hunter, Louis XIV later helped make Chambord look like it does today. He used the same architect that designed Versailles. | Source
Lavish royal apartments were unfurnished in King Francis' day, as the windows to the castle were open.  Large hunting parties had to bring their own furniture with them.
Lavish royal apartments were unfurnished in King Francis' day, as the windows to the castle were open. Large hunting parties had to bring their own furniture with them. | Source
Ornamental wood-fueled fireplaces like this one ineffectively heated the massive castle.
Ornamental wood-fueled fireplaces like this one ineffectively heated the massive castle. | Source
Bust of Louis XIV, one of the owners of Chambord.
Bust of Louis XIV, one of the owners of Chambord. | Source

Dream Unfulfilled

Francis intermittently occupied the castle for a total of only 72 days, as the massive structure's open windows made temperature control impractical. Unfortunately, he died of syphilis before the massive château could be fully completed.

If the king found any consolation, however, it was the opportunity to host his archnemesis at Chambord, thus rubbing Charles V's nose in his achievement.

Chambord's Regal Roofline

Chambord's famous roofline resembles the skyline of the Constantinople (now Istanbul)
Chambord's famous roofline resembles the skyline of the Constantinople (now Istanbul) | Source

Chambord's Claims to Fame

Today the immense castle is a testament to King Francis I's dogged persistence. It also stands as a monument to royal wealth and power. The largest château in the Loire Valley region of France, Chambord features

  • 440 rooms
  • 84 staircases
  • 282 fireplaces
  • 13,000 acres (5,440 hectares) of wooded parkland surrounding the château and
  • a 19-mile (31 km) wall that completely encloses the property.5

Chambord endures as one of the most recognizable châteaux in all of the Loire Valley. It is particularly well known for two architectural elements: its roofline and double helix staircase.

Chambord's Famous Double Helix Staircase

The double helix staircase is a central feature of the castle and joins four floors.
The double helix staircase is a central feature of the castle and joins four floors. | Source

Chambord's Famous Roofline

Francis intended for the castle's roofline to resemble the skyline of the city of Constantinople (now Istanbul). Author Henry James remarked that Chambord's "towers, cupolas, the gables, the lanterns, the chimneys, look more like the spires of a city than the salient points of a single building."

Double Helix Staircase: A Touch of da Vinci?

Equally notable is the château's double helix staircase, an architectural marvel thought to have been inspired by Leonardo da Vinci. Francis was da Vinci's friend and benefactor, supplying the aging painter with a generous pension and living quarters on the grounds of a nearby château, Amboise.

The artist was a brilliant thinker and had a remarkable range of interests: science, math, engineering, inventing, anatomy, botany, music, and writing.

Chambord's double helix staircase is actually two spiral staircases that are independently wound around a central column. They are positioned so that two people walking on the staircases—say, a servant and a royal—would never meet. The double helix staircase is located in the central keep, and joins four floors. It is the central feature of the castle's interior.

King Francis I Chose the Salamander as His Emblem

King Francis I chose the salamander as his personal symbol.  It appears over 800 times throughout Chambord.
King Francis I chose the salamander as his personal symbol. It appears over 800 times throughout Chambord. | Source

Famous People Who Died Of Syphilis, the "French Disease"

To insult a whole country of people, simply refer to a deadly sexually transmitted disease as "their" disease.

The Italians referred to syphilis as a "French disease" because a major outbreak occurred when the French invaded Italy in 1495. (In turn, the French called it the "Italian disease.")

Caused by a bacterium, syphilis produces the following symptoms: chancre sores, swollen lymph nodes, fever, weight loss, bone and joint pain. In later stages, it can lead to heart damage, paralysis, dementia, blindness, and mental illness.6

Syphilis was a major killer during the Renaissance period.7 King Francis I died of it, and throughout history many famous politicians, artists, and musicians reportedly suffered from the ailment as well.

Until penicillin was discovered to safely and reliably cure syphilis in 1928, syphilitic patients were often injected with mercury (or they swallowed or inaled it). This deadly treatment gave rise to the saying, "a night with Venus; a lifetime with Mercury."8

The following is a short list of famous people whom historians allege either suffered from syphilis or died from it.

  • Explorers Christopher Columbus and his crew are believed to have brought the disease back from the New World.
  • Gangster Al Capone died of syphilis.9
  • Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche
  • Artists Paul Gauguin, Vincent Van Gogh, and Édouard Manet
  • Composers Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Schubert, and Robert Schumann10
  • Authors/Poets/Playwrights Giacomo Casanova, Gustave Flaubert, James Joyce, Guy de Maupassant, William Shakespeare, and Leo Tolstoy
  • World Leaders and Politicians: Napoleon Bonaparte, Henry VIII, Adolf Hitler, Ivan the Terrible, Vladimir Lenin, Abraham Lincoln, Benito Mussolini, and yes, even George Washington.

With all this suffering among the famous, can you imagine how the rest of the population fared? Thank goodness for the advent of penicillin.

What Does the Salamander Symbolize?

If it seems like salamanders have overtaken Chambord, you're right! Over 800 of them are carved into the masonry, particularly on third flood ceiling tiles.

Francis adopted the salamander as his personal emblem, and they appear along with the decorative initial "F" throughout the castle.

Salamanders also appear on other buildings Francis commissioned or renovated. On royal buildings, the salamander was generally depicted with a crown or floating crown, and on non-royal houses, the animal's head is bare.

Francis selected the salamander for its Renaissance symbolism. The animal was believed to be able to not only survive a fire but also to extinguish flames with its cool, moist skin. The salamander thus represents bravery, invulnerability to harm, and triumph over destructive forces.

Francis accordingly adopted the motto "Nutrisco et extinguo," meaning "I nourish [the good] and extinguish [the bad]."11 The king believed that he was nourished by the flame of faith, peace, and love and that it gave him the strength to extinguish injustice and greed.

King Francis I: Monarch Behind the Mighty Castle

To fully appreciate Chambord, one must understand the essence of the monarch behind this mighty castle. King Francis I was a power-hungry ruler who loved the arts. He was also a spendthrift who did not hesitate to indulge his passions.

Unexpected Inheritance

Francis was a long shot in the line for the throne. No one expected that he would inherit the monarchy.12

However, when he was four years old his cousin, Louis XII, died without a male heir, leaving him as king of France. Francis' own father had died two years earlier, and both his mother and sister coddled him. They were such a tight threesome that sometimes they were referred to as "the trinity."

Man of the Arts

Francis' mother, Louise of Savoy, ruled France in his behalf until he was old enough to assume the throne himself in 1515. She instilled in her only son a love of the budding Renaissance era: philosophy, theology, art, literature, poetry, and dancing.

Ornate carvings of salamanders and the king's initial on the ceiling of the third floor.
Ornate carvings of salamanders and the king's initial on the ceiling of the third floor. | Source

Francis is credited as initiating the French Renaissance. During his reign, he became a great patron of the arts, procuring a vast collection of sculptures and paintings to fill the Louvre as well as the châteaux he built.

Francis also became a benefactor of several acclaimed Italian artists, and he brought them to France. These included masters such as Leonardo da Vinci, Giulio Romano, and Primaticciohe.

They Called Him "King Francis of The Large Nose"

King Francis I was known for his disproportionately large honker.  They say that he was considered otherwise attractive.  After all, he was king.
King Francis I was known for his disproportionately large honker. They say that he was considered otherwise attractive. After all, he was king. | Source

"Every woman is fickle, he who trusts one is a fool."

— the lovelorn King Francis I scratched this into the surface of Chambord

Hunter's Paradise

Chambord is filled with evidence of royal hunting conquests:  stuffed game, antlers, and artwork depicting the hunt.  The wall surrounding the castle made it more of a "canned" hunt.
Chambord is filled with evidence of royal hunting conquests: stuffed game, antlers, and artwork depicting the hunt. The wall surrounding the castle made it more of a "canned" hunt. | Source

Royal Spendthrift

Francis greatly expanded the royal library which had been depleted by war. He also poured enormous sums of money into construction and renovation projects, including Chambord, the Louvre, Amboise, and Fontainebleau. Although he had champagne dreams and wine money, that was no deterrent for a man on a mission.

Francis' construction projects were a testament to his love of luxury, wealth, and good taste. His primary concerns in life became hunting, tennis, jewelry, and making a show of his bravery and good manners.

Player or Played?

An attractive man of over six feet tall, Francis had one unfortunate feature: a very long and large nose. As a result, he was sometimes referred to as "King Francis of The Large Nose." Nevertheless, he enjoyed the ladies and welcomed the pretty ones to the court: "A court without women is a year without spring and a spring without roses.” (What a smooth talking son of a gun!)

Throughout Francis' reign, women—his sister, mother, and especially his mistresses—influenced him heavily and even dominated him. As monarch, he was a curious mix of extremes. Francis sought absolute power in his official role, yet he was also a man whose decision-making vacillated wildly.

He was the first French king to insist on being addressed as "Your Majesty." Previously this title was held by the Holy Roman Emperor. Also, in the 32 years that he ruled France (1515–1547), he never once called the Estates-General to session. (The Estates-General was a Parliament-like body.)

His Chambord Legacy

Francis' legacy of Château de Chambord is thus the product of a man who never expected to be king yet once crowned wanted to make his mark by impressing the world with his importance and grandeur. Chambord certainly does this. It is four times the size of most Loire Valley châteaux and its architecture is magnificent.

Although he nearly mortgaged France's future with his extravagant spending, we will always remember Francis for Chambord, a stately achievement.

Château de Chambord In the Loire Valley of France

A markerChateau de Chambord -
Château de Chambord, Réserve Nationale de Chasse de Chambord, Place Saint-Louis, 41250 Chambord, Fra
get directions

How to Finish What You Start

It took Francis 28 years to build Chambord due not only to its massive size but also funding issues and enlargements in scope. If you've ever had trouble finishing a project, here are some tips for completion:

  1. Be selective in the projects you undertake. Don't take on too many projects, and don't undertake them for the wrong reasons.
  2. Understand what 100% complete requires. What is your goal?
  3. Decide whether it's worth your effort to complete the project. Deciding not to complete it is, in fact, a decision.
  4. Clearly identify what resources you need to complete the project (e.g, money, expertise).
  5. Determine the smaller actionable steps that are required to complete your project. Whom will you enlist to help? Remember, you don't have to do everything yourself.
  6. Build in timetables and ways to hold yourself accountable.
  7. Shut out distractions.

Beautiful Details Abound

Intricate carvings help make the building both architecture and artwork.
Intricate carvings help make the building both architecture and artwork. | Source

Notes

1Wikipedia. "Château de Chambord." Last modified August 11, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ch%C3%A2teau_de_Chambord.

2San Diego Opera. "Francis I of France." Accessed August 15, 2013. http://www.sdopera.com/Operapaedia/Rigoletto.

3De Ganay, Earnest. "Castle of Chambord. History and description. Pratical informations." Vacances en Val de Loire. Accessed August 15, 2013. http://www.37-online.net/gb/castles/chambord_gb.php.

4Guizot, M. "History of France Vol IV." Project Gutenberg. Accessed August 15, 2013. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/11954/11954-h/11954-h.htm.

5FranceMonthly. "The Chambord Castle." Accessed August 15, 2013. http://www.francemonthly.com/chambord.

6WebMD. "Understanding Syphilis -- Symptoms." Accessed August 15, 2013. http://www.webmd.com/sexual-conditions/understanding-syphilis-symptoms.

7Stein, Lisa. "Did Columbus Bring Syphilis to Europe?: Scientific American." Scientific American. Last modified January 15, 2008. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=did-columbus-bring-syphilis-to-europe.

8Mandal, Ananya. "Syphilis History." Medical-News.net. Accessed August 15, 2013. http://www.news-medical.net/health/Syphilis-History.aspx.

9Holmes, Andrew. "Live Like Dirt: Shakespeare and Hitler, Comrades in Syphilis." Live Like Dirt. Last modified March 14, 2009. http://livelikedirt.blogspot.com/2009/03/shakespeare-and-hitler-comrades-in.html.

10Historyking. "Famous People Who Died Of Syphilis." Accessed August 15, 2013. http://historyking.com/Famous-people/Famous-People-Who-Died-Of-Syphilis.html.

11Douglas, Julianne. "Salamander in Chief." Writing the Renaissance. Last modified March 29, 2010. http://writingren.blogspot.com/2009/10/salamander-in-chief.html.

12Luminarium: Anthology of English Literature. "Luminarium Encyclopedia: Francis I, King of France (1494-1547)." Accessed August 16, 2013. http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/francis1.htm.

© 2013 FlourishAnyway

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    • FlourishAnyway profile image
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      FlourishAnyway 2 years ago from USA

      aesta1 - Thanks for stopping by! Have a great weekend.

    • aesta1 profile image

      Mary Norton 2 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      Love the history and the take on finishing projects. I found a close affinity to people who don't finish their projects and now, you have given me a Royal.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
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      FlourishAnyway 2 years ago from USA

      Cynthia - The syphillis list not containing any famous women who died of it stumped me too because most certainly the "social disease" involved them too, but my combing through all the lists and not being able to find any can be chalked up to a couple of guesses:

      1) HIStory tending to favor men as influencers and worthy of noting in the books, 2) the external and easily recognizable nature of the disease in men making it easier to attempt to treat or at least identify rather than mistake in its tertiary form as mental illness, 3) the greater social taboo on women who may have caught a "social disease" (would it be acknowledged as easily?). I found two cases of famous women who had it but they didn't die of syphillis so I considered them out of scope. And I had also never heard of them. Thanks for asking the question.

    • techygran profile image

      Cynthia 2 years ago from Vancouver Island, Canada

      FlourishAnyway:

      A fascinating article of Francis1 and his dominion. I have to wonder that no famous women made your short list for syphillis? Perhaps women were not involved? hmm.

      Someday I would like to see this monstrosity of a castle. Thank you for this post! Voted up, awesome, and shared.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
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      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      Tolovaj - Thank you for taking the tour! Glad you enjoyed it!

    • Tolovaj profile image

      Tolovaj 3 years ago

      Castles always hide interesting tidbits of history and as you presented them with details from personal life, I felt almost I was there, among the ghosts with long noses and salamanders. Thanks for the tour!

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
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      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      moonlake - Thanks so much for the visit and the share. It was a beautiful place to visit. I'd love to go back to France.

    • moonlake profile image

      moonlake 3 years ago from America

      Beautiful love your photos. Very interesting hub. Voted up.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 4 years ago from USA

      DDE - Thank you for reading and commenting. I also appreciate the compliments on the photos. Chambord is a very interesting place with a past that is worth delving into!

    • DDE profile image

      Devika Primić 4 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

      Incredible photos and an informative hub on Château de Chambord: A Mighty Castle In the Loire Valley of France, and you presented this hub professionally definitely worth a read to any traveler. Voted up, useful and interesting.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
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      FlourishAnyway 4 years ago from USA

      jimadams123 - Thanks for reading and commenting.

    • profile image

      jimadams123 4 years ago

      nice good

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
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      FlourishAnyway 4 years ago from USA

      IslandBites - Thank you for stopping by!

    • IslandBites profile image

      IslandBites 4 years ago from Puerto Rico

      Beautiful. Nice hub!

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 4 years ago from USA

      kidscrafts - Don't you feel so fortune to have been able to tour this magnificent place? It is certainly memorable to me. I only wish I had more time to linger there. I personally do think Leonardo had a hand in conceptualizing the staircase. It is so unusual. Thank you so much for the visit, votes, and comment!

    • kidscrafts profile image

      kidscrafts 4 years ago from Ottawa, Canada

      What a wonderful hub about this beautiful castle!

      I didn't remember the wood-fueled fireplaces with the Delft tiles; but I remember that I saw some of them in castles in Saint-Petersburg last year. I suppose it was the "new heat system" of the time!

      But I definitely remember the double helix staircase; what a great architectural prowess! It's definitely something that Leonardo Da Vinci might have designed it; he was a so brilliant mind!

      Thank you for bringing me back to that tour of the Loire castles that I did more than 7 years ago!

      You must have had a fabulous time discovering all those architectural treasures!

      Thank you for sharing your beautiful pictures as well!

      Have a great weekend!

      Voted up, interesting and awesome!

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
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      FlourishAnyway 4 years ago from USA

      bravewarrior - Historians debate whether some of these famous people were syphylitics, and for some we will never know for certain. I was surprised myself at this list -- and this is a short version! Priests and other religious leaders during the time also would sometimes develop the tell-tale chancre sores on their faces for all the world to see (euphemistically referred to as "purple flowers"). That's a dead give away, huh? Thank you so much for your support.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 4 years ago from USA

      Bill - Thanks for reading, commenting and sharing. It was an enormous castle that was fun to tour. I would definitely tour with a guided group. Allegedly, King Francis even rode his horse right into the castle sometimes. Thanks again for the visit!

    • bravewarrior profile image

      Shauna L Bowling 4 years ago from Central Florida

      Flourish, you are the master of historical writing. You really add interest and a human touch to your writings. I was a little taken aback by the people who died or suffered from syphilis. Abraham Lincoln?! George Washington?! I would like to have thought they were faithful to their wives. Bummer!

      Interesting and expertly written article - as always!

    • bdegiulio profile image

      Bill De Giulio 4 years ago from Massachusetts

      Hi FA. What a wonderful tour of the Chateau e Chambord. And what a fascinating history this amazing chateau has. Will have to add this to my list of must see sites when we get to France. Thank you for the history lesson on King Francis I. Voted up, shared, pinned, etc. Have a great weekend.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 4 years ago from USA

      travmaj - Thank you for your kind words. Francis certainly did have an enormous honker. I can't imagine that people called the king that nickname to his face. And syphilis sounds like a really nasty disease. I had no idea prior to my research that so many people throughout had been affected -- and prominent people to boot. In some instances, it was believed that leprosy was in fact syphilis. Who knew? Thanks for reading and voting.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 4 years ago from USA

      Rose - Thank you for reading and commenting. This was an enormous chateau and we actually got a little lost in it during our visit. Only 80 of its 440 rooms are open to the public. The staircase is really something. I appreciate your encouragement.

    • travmaj profile image

      travmaj 4 years ago from australia

      I enjoyed this hub very much - full of history and most interesting additional information. This is one beautiful chateau and I knew zilch about King Francis until now - the French have incomparable style and vision . The nose was impressive - I guess being a King it was acceptable - reminded me of Cyrano de Bergerac. Interesting facts re syphilis also - I'm worse than Francis re finishing a project - help! Voting.

    • rose-the planner profile image

      rose-the planner 4 years ago from Toronto, Ontario-Canada

      This is an impeccable travel article! You have been presenting some truly awesome articles on France and this one is another great piece of work. You have provided excellent, insightful and interesting information regarding Château de Chambord's history. Also, your images are spectacular! Well done! Thank you for sharing. -Rose