Tamara is a mother of three and a grandmother of seven who finds great joy in sharing her life journeys, experiences, and lessons with you.
My first visit to Arizona was in the early nineties when my husband suggested we take a trip to see his mother, who lives in the Phoenix area's suburbs. I had barely left my home state of Minnesota before this trip, other than a couple of border crossings into Iowa. My only exposure to a different climate was limited to what I had seen on television or read about in a book.
In light of my little travel experience, I wasn't prepared for the entirely different climate and landscape differences that I encountered. As a Minnesota native, things like trees, water, and greenery were taken for granted before this journey.
Upon my arrival to the desert basin of the Phoenix region, I was greeted with wide-open spaces of what appeared to be dusty colored nothingness and barren mountains in the distance, with some Saguaro cacti sprinkled here and there. I felt a little bit like I had just arrived on another planet or the moon.
The dry air was something I was unaccustomed to, as well. I quickly discovered why lip balm is a staple in Arizona. Hairspray is something you might want to consider for your stay, as well. The dry air makes for a very static experience.
I have to be honest with you that the Phoenix area's desert basin initially left me unimpressed. I wondered why approximately 4.5 million people of the 6th largest city in the U.S. decided to live in this arid, hot and flat desert...that is until we did a little adventuring. Can I say I have since changed my mind?
After several more visits and further exploration, I have now come to understand the attraction to this desert state's rich diversity and beauty in all of its varied expressions.
This article's remainder will be a compilation of several visits, as we now make it an annual event. I can only give testimony to the places and spaces I have had the privilege to visit, but I must reassure you that there is so much more to see and do in this beautiful state.
Let's get started!
The first stop is Phoenix and its suburbs.
I'm not a fan of most things metro in any state, but the Phoenix area does feature some highlights that I enjoyed, one of them being orange trees. If you visit in the winter, as we often do, the smell of orange blossoms is in the air. They are not native to this area, but private homeowners and industry growers cultivate them.
In Minnesota, oranges are dry, sour, and fibrous from being picked too early so that they can survive a long time being shipped on a truck. An Arizona orange is ripe, sweet, and juicy! It was quite a treat to eat one right off of the tree. It was succulent and sweet!
Another favorite tree that I admired, common to the metro area, is the Palm tree. As with the orange tree, you won't see this variety in the desert regions because they are not native to this area but cultivated for landscaping urban spaces.
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Palms are the southern version of an evergreen. They are not only beautiful, but they are a practical reprieve from the intense Arizona heat, as their large fronds can provide a substantial amount of shade.
Palms are not only practical, but they also add a touch of life to the seemingly lifeless look of a desert basin.
Southwest Fast Food
One of our favorite places to eat in Arizona is at "In-N-Out Burger," only available in the southwest. My husband and I aren't much into fancy dining, mainly because we are too busy exploring. If we don't get a chance to pack a lunch or supper, we stop here. There are about four menu options that keep ordering short, sweet, and simple. The flavor is fabulous, the bun is toasted, and fresh-cut fries are made right before your very eyes.
In such a large metropolitan area, you end up waiting in line for everything, no matter what time of the day it is. Shopping events in these densely populated areas is a painful experience for me. In these respects, I'll stick with rural life.
South Mountain Park—Dobbin's Point
A lovely little overlook park located right in the Phoenix area is South Mountain Park, otherwise known as Dobbin's Point. It is a beautiful way to capture a bird's eye view of this region's vast urban sprawl if you don't mind driving a winding gravel road to get up to it. The point sits about 1000 feet above and overlooks the metro area.
Sunset is a spectacular time to visit, as the city's night lights mingle with the Arizona pink sky, offering a captivating desert panorama.
This spot also has approximately 70 miles of trails if you enjoy hiking, bike riding, and rumor has it there is horseback riding available.
One common plant you will see throughout both the desert and urban spaces is the Agave plant. You might be familiar with a health food sweetener known as Agave made from this plant's nectar.
A fascinating fact about the Agave plant is that it flowers once, and then it dies. They are sometimes known as the "century plant" because it can take many years, most commonly thirty or forty years, for the plant to blossom. When it does flower, it shoots up a stalk, up to thirty feet in height.
Many species of this plant have varying leaf widths, but all have a similar structure.
Superstition Mountains—Lost Dutchman State Park
The Superstition Mountains are named rightly so, as they are the subject of many superstitions surrounding a lost Dutchman named Jacob Waltz. Jacob was a German immigrant whose search for gold led to a legend about a hidden gold mine. Rumors claim he found a wealth of riches somewhere in the range but died with the secret of where the treasure may have been hidden. Many people have since lost their lives looking to discover the legendary riches and perished either from the extreme and unforgiving desert climate or by unknown people attempting to prevent the find. These deadly searches have occurred as recently as 2011 and 2012.
A reality series called "Legend of the Superstition Mountains" on the History channel chronicles present-day treasure seekers' adventures in this area. The series provides a lot of background history to the story and individual present-day stories and experiences.
This park and mountains are just a hop, skip, and jump from Apache Junction, a Phoenix suburb.
Prickly Pear Cactus
There are some "old western" themed touristy places to shop and eat just across the road from the park entrance. One memorable from our visit there was drinking prickly pear cactus juice. It was very refreshing and reminded me a bit of lemonade. I had no idea fruit juice could be made from a cactus plant.
The prickly pear cactus is cold tolerant and very common in the desert as well as urban landscaping. It is a highly edible variety of cactus, which is thought to help stabilize blood sugars, lower bad cholesterol and maintain good cholesterol. The leaves, flowers, stems, and fruits are all edible and can be boiled or grilled.
Onward with our journey.
Siphon Draw Trail—Destination Flat Iron
Within the "Lost Dutchman, State Park" in the Superstition Mountains is a popular and well-visited public trail that leads to the top of what is known as "Flat Iron." It is easily identifiable by its shape. This trail is a rugged, steep, uphill climb and can feel a bit relentless because of how rapidly it elevates.
It ranks as a challenging climb, and a person should be in good shape if they plan to make the entire hike. Such was not the case for me this year. It is nearly 6 miles to the top and back, and it is a little over 2500 ft elevation gain from the base of the trail to the top of Flat Iron. It takes about 4-5 hours to do the entire tour, so start early and give yourself plenty of time for the climb.
There are no bathroom stops on this trail, and finding a private area could be pretty challenging. So make sure you take care of that kind of business beforehand.
If you just so happen to be there at the right time, you may get to see some paragliders descending from the sky. They land perfectly, right on the trail. An accurate landing is most likely inspired by the desire not to fall on a prickly cactus or rocky outcropping.
Snakes and scorpions, on warmer days, should also be noted. This region is their habitat, and even if you don't see them, it is good to be aware that they are there.
This is an excellent place to mention that it is an absolute must to bring water on any desert hike, even if it isn't sweltering. The air is so dry, and just a little panting and mild sweating can leave you feeling parched. It does not take very long to dehydrate.
Also, sunscreen is a necessity, as well. If you are a northerner, such as myself, you will notice how much more intense and high in the sky the sun is in the south than the angled, more muted sunlight in the north.
The Water Basin—Summit Flat Iron
The halfway point to Flat Iron is known as the "water basin." The elevation at this spot is 3085 feet, which is about a 1000 foot elevation gain from the trailhead.
This spot is where I usually stop due to my fear of heights. The trail here becomes much more rugged in both steepness and becomes littered with loose rock. This spot is also where my husband and I split up. He heads to the top. I linger and join up with some fellow northerners for the trip back down.
The Top of Flat Iron
One day I hope to work up the courage to get up to the top. Until then, my husband will be the photographer for that leg of the journey. He would rather climb and enjoy the view, but he took a few shots just for me.
If you like roughing it, you can camp at the top.
Hilariously, this year I dawdled so much, taking photos and admiring the views that he made it to the top and back in the same amount of time it took me to go halfway up and back.
At the top of this trail, some rocky spires project from the mountain top. One set of them bears the black sooty remnants of a tragic plane crash that occurred in 2011.
A divorced father of three was flying his children to his home for Thanksgiving in a twin-engine plane. Another pilot, who was on board and manning this leg of the flight, crashed into one of the spires' sides. There was also a mechanic on board who was just along for the ride. Six people total perished in the incident.
The flight was at night and has become a topic of controversy concerning FAA rules that had changed five years previously. Because of an increased volume of commercial flights, the regulation stated that small aircraft were required to fly below 5000 feet. With these mountains presenting at about the same elevation, pilots have some scary encounters when navigating this particular area.
The video I have included is footage of the mother of the children who climbed three years after the event to view the memorial placed there in tribute to them.
A stand-out cactus native and exclusive to this region, known as the Sonoran Desert, is the ever-popular and iconic Saguaro Cactus. Its blossom is the Arizona state flower, and it is the largest of all cacti in the United States.
They can grow up to 70 feet tall and weigh up to 4500 pounds. They have a 5-foot taproot with a spreading network that is only 4-6 inches deep on average. It is a cold intolerant cactus that can be killed by frost. Depending on how much moisture it receives, the plant can shrink or swell by 25 percent in a given year. It is interestingly predominantly made up of water. Its ability to conserve due to its design is impressive.
Saguaros can live up to approximately 200 years old, and they don't grow flowers until they are about 35 or arms until they are about 100. These, like the Prickly Pear, have edible parts.
Birds such as woodpeckers may harm a cactus by making holes and creating unstable areas in this huge plant. It is also illegal to damage a Saguaro cactus in the state of Arizona.
The Grand Canyon
What would be a trip to Arizona without a visit to the awe-inspiring Grand Canyon in the state's Northern part? It is one of the world's natural wonders and the second largest canyon in the world.
Nothing could have prepared me for the sensation of personally experiencing the largeness, dizzying depths, and grandeur of this space. I say area because that is what I felt like, as if I was out in the middle of outer space!
My depth perception was calibrated for a flat southern Minnesota landscape, and all systems were on tilt as I tried to comprehend the "take my breath away" views. I was both terrified and mesmerized by them.
If you were there, I was the lady who inched her way to, and leaned away from, the bars at the edge of the precipice that overlooked the 1 mile high, 18 miles wide, and 277 miles long, crack in the earth, wincing and whining all the way.
The Fine Line
My husband is the opposite of me and can be found fearlessly skipping around tall, isolated rock formations like a gazelle while I wince and whine for him.
I always tell him how much I admire his bravery, to which he replies, "There is a fine line between bravery and stupidity." I think the man with the fancy camera who was watching might agree. He was encouraging the leap, and I was pretty sure he was looking to get his once-in-a-lifetime million dollar shot of someone jumping to their death.
My fears aren't entirely unfounded. The Grand Canyon has approximately four and a half million visitors annually and claims about twelve of them to death of some kind. Two or three of these deaths are due to falling into the canyon, not to mention the over 300 helicopter rescues performed annually.
You can do so many things at the Canyon that is not included in this writing, such as aerial viewing via helicopter, mule rides, hiking, fishing, kayaking down the Colorado River that flows through the Canyon. The list is endless.
Snowbowl and Flagstaff
Not too far south of The Grand Canyon is a mountainous region known as the San Francisco Peaks with big winter snow and is home to Humphrey's Peak. Humphreys' Peak is the highest point in Arizona, with an elevation of 12,633 feet.
We occasionally head up to this area so my husband can take advantage of the ski runs at the Arizona Snowbowl Ski Resort. They offer a great "Ski free on your birthday" deal of which he likes to partake.
The winter climate in this part of the state is more reminiscent of an average winter day at home. The Northern Arizona Ponderosa pine forest reminds me, a little, of Northern Minnesota, except for elevation. In Minnesota, we have some tiny mountains in the extreme northeastern corner of the state. These are by far more prominent.
Other Flagstaff Opportunities
Typically, Arizona's mountainous area receives about 100 inches of snow each year, oddly making it one of the snowiest cities in the U.S. The Snowbowl remains open in the summer, offering scenic ski lift views.
If you are the athletic, adventurous type, there is a place called "Flagstaff Extreme" that offers a zip line obstacle course, and once again, the views are fabulous.
The city of Flagstaff is located just to the south of this mountain range and is ten miles from the ski area. It has a population of approximately 70,000. It sits a the intersection of two major interstates, 40 running east and west, and 17 that runs north and south.
Before we head south and east from Flagstaff, there are just a couple of places to note to the west for our next destination.
Meteor Crater is a fascinating little place to stop. It is a little bit to the west of Flagstaff and not far off Interstate 40 in the northern part of the state.
No hiking here or even a tree to look at, for that matter, but the massive hole in the ground is stunning. It is a perfectly shaped bowl evidencing the impact of a giant spherical object not from this planet. I can't even imagine the sensation of that impact,
Like the Canyon, a photo can't quite capture its immensity and the personal feeling of smallness while standing along its rim. There is a six-foot-tall astronaut dummy in the crater's center as a frame of reference to its size.
There are an educational center, gift shop, and a Subway sandwich shop on site.
The Petrified Forest and Painted Desert
I only have a few things to say about the Petrified Forest and Painted Desert. Let me first begin by saying that, as far as deserts go, yes, they both were a beautiful "look-see," but I had a problem with the word "forest" included in the name of a place that has no trees. I felt a little deceived. It should have been more accurately named the "Petrified Wood Chunks Desert." There wasn't a tree anywhere to be found, and if you wanted to see petrified wood, binoculars would be required because you can't just go out and look at it. You would be better off going to the rock hound area that will be discussed later. You can actually have some specimens of your own to keep, as well as witness a few desert plants for your viewing pleasure.
The next stop is Walnut Canyon.
Walnut Canyon National Monument
Walnut Canyon National Monument was a nice little afterthought and a pleasant surprise for something to do while my husband went skiing in Flagstaff. I don't ski, but I don't mind doing a little hiking. We brought a friend with us, and so he and I selected this little gem of a spot to explore.
Walnut Canyon's Trails
This canyon is just a few miles west of Flagstaff and has a couple of beautiful hiking trails that tour ancient native American cliff dwellings. The rim trail is a little less than a mile around and offers some spectacular views of the canyon as well as "up close," and personal tours through some cozy-looking ancient homes tucked into the rocks. You can go inside these fascinating living spaces and imagine what it must have been like to live in that time. It is, for the most part, a paved and relatively easy path. The Island Trail is a little more strenuous, with some elevation changes and about a mile long.
Another area features cliff dwellings known as Montezuma's Castle, which is farther south and Just off of Interstate 17, south of Flagstaff. Montezuma doesn't offer hiking, and the dwelling is 90 feet up the cliff. The dwellings can only be viewed from a distance below. A miniature replica shows what the inside looks like and how the Native Americans used it.
One more feature I noted at this particular park is the Arizona Sycamore trees that ornament the area. I was fascinated by the beautiful patchwork bark patterns of this tree.
I also discovered that these are Arizona's largest deciduous trees, growing as tall as 80 feet high, with almost an equal spread. And like the palm, it can provide a substantial amount of necessary shade with its huge four to six-inch star-shaped leaves. This particular variety of Sycamore is native and exclusive to this region of the U.S.
Seasoned logs from this tree can last for centuries. The roof beams of Montezuma's Castle are made from Sycamore logs that are over 700 years old.
It's time to head east and south to one of my favorite drives that will take us through Oak Creek Canyon.
Oak Creek Canyon Scenic Drive
According to Rand McNally, the Oak Creek Canyon Scenic Drive is one of the top five in the U.S. Highway 89 begins at Flagstaff and takes you to Sedona. It's about a 30-mile drive that will take about 45 minutes, depending on how often you pull over to look around. There is a lovely overlook park at the top of the canyon about 15 minutes south of Flagstaff, offering a beautiful bird's eye view of this forested red rock region.
There are hairpin switchbacks along the way. Once again, I was both terrified and mesmerized by the experience. I can report that the view was totally worth the fears I faced. The 15 mile an hour speed limit around the turns helped a lot, and there are guard rails along the cliffside of the road. The elevation drops about 4000 feet from the overlook to Sedona, another 15 miles from there.
Sedona, home of the infamous red rocks, hosts a population of only 10,000, but it seems like a lot more, from a traffic perspective, because of the massive tourism. Scenic Highway 89 is heavily traveled at Sedona.
Sedona is full of craft, culture, and mysticism, be prepared to hear about and see gift shops laden with items themed in things like aliens and vortexes.
Like the Grand Canyon, there are a plethora of things to do in this region. We prefer the outskirts trail exploring variety of things to do. The natural wonders are just no comparison to the sometimes odd offerings within the town itself.
Bell Rock, appropriately named from its shape, is just outside of Sedona. It is one of our favorite hikes.
"Devil's Bridge" is a unique natural bridge not too far outside of Sedona, and I was almost as amused by it as I was by the Grand Canyon. Nothing compares to the Grand Canyon.
It is a three-mile, round trip hike that, for the most part, is easy, that is, until you get to the end. The last ten minutes of the walk dramatically increases in elevation with the rough rock for steps that curve steeply up a ridge that leads to the bridge.
The Devil's Bridge Trail
Being an Acrophobic, it took me about fifteen minutes to talk myself into going up the second set of rock steps leading to the bridge. The winding stairs look cozy, all tucked into the surrounding mountainside, but off to the left -view, there is wide open, over the cliff, space. Many people passed me with ease, so my senses may have been a bit exaggerated.
Once you get to the top, it can be slippery and icy. This area is about 4000 feet in elevation and shaded most of the time, which helps this little spot maintain snow and ice.
Much Like the canyon, this area can be hazardous if you don't watch your step. I would not recommend bringing little ones up there. Folks have died on this trail. The view is worth the climb. Just use some caution and watch your step.
I didn't make out to the bridge on the first visit. I was determined to do so this last visit, even if I had to crawl on my belly, and I made it. I did not resort to belly crawling, but used a bottom scooting, stay low, technique while my husband jumped over the three-foot-wide bottomless crevice as displayed in this section's accompanying photos.
While at the top of Devil's Bridge, I found an amusing tree with bark so smooth it looked plastic. After a bit of research, I discovered that it is known as a Manzanita tree. Its name is taken from the Spanish word for apple because its fruit resembles miniature apples.
They are evergreen shrubs with edible berries and are familiar to this area. The leaves have medicinal uses for treating poison oak rash and mild urinary tract infections and can also be used as a disinfectant.
The flowers are pink bell-shaped blossoms and smell like honey. There is enough nectar in these flowers that you can squeeze and partake of a bit of nectar yourself.
Seeds commonly sprout by a fire that cracks open the seed pod. These seeds can lay dormant for up to one hundred years.
Another great and favored hike that offers spectacular views in the Sedona area is at Cathedral Rock. Once again, my husband or friend took the best photo of this section as they peered through the spires because I couldn't get up that high. It is a less than a mile hike to the spires that ascend some 900 feet up from Oak Creek and is one of the most photographed places in all of Arizona.
It isn't always the height that gets me with these places, but it's the rock's texture as well. Sometimes the trails lead up some smooth, slippery, or loose rock that is difficult to get a firm grip with your feet or hands, if needed, on.
Much like the dangers already discussed in other sections of this tour, so it is with this spot. The photo that heads this section was taken at the base of the spires (600 feet up) at the top of the trail. Some folks have died climbing the spires. Climbing the spires is therefore not recommended.
Bell rock, displayed in the Sedona section, is the most climbed rock in the area, and it is also where most rock climbing deaths have occurred. It isn't near as tall as the others, but the unstable crumbly sandstone can give away quite quickly. Like Cathedral Rock, it's relatively safe and easy for the first part, but it's dangerous trying to get to the top.
Another safety note on these climbs always be on the lookout and have ears perked for loose falling rock along the way. I had one come rolling at me on the Siphon Draw Trail. Others up ahead were kind enough to yell rock several times for those of us in its path, so we could step aside and get out of its way.
Barrel Cactus or Compass Cactus
One more desert plant that is common in both urban and wilderness areas is commonly known as the Barrel Cactus.
The Barrel cactus gets its name obviously from its spherical shape. They have a similar water-conserving accordion structure as the Saguaro Cactus. Three feet is about as tall as this plant gets. A deep prick from this variety of cactus might require an antibiotic. The fruit on this particular cactus can be consumed, but the word on the street is that it is not very palatable.
They are also known as the Compass Cactus because they slant towards the south. This slanting occurs because the northern, more shaded side grows faster.
Theodore Roosevelt Dam
My husband thought it would be entertaining to take me to see Theodore Roosevelt Dam located on the Salt River northeast of Phoenix.
The entertainment involved choosing a lesser-traveled route, state highway 88, otherwise known as the Apache Trail, with the foreknowledge that I might find this distressing.
It is only 45 miles long but takes three and a half hours to drive it. The reason for the length of this trip is all the hairpin curves and steep grades encountered along this mostly gravel, sometimes no guard railed, and sometimes potholed journey. Slow is about all you should go. There are a few spots that scarcely accommodate two vehicles passing each other. R.V.s are not recommended on this route, but we saw several of them along the way.
The first part of the trip was unsuspectingly easy and beautiful. I spent most of the last half of the journey in the backseat, bent over so I could not see the unguarded dizzying depths. Either my husband was a bit unnerved himself, or he didn't care for the results of his entertainment attempt because he opted for a much lengthier interstate route for the ride back.
This terrifying experience explains the lack of photos on the second leg of this journey. I, therefore, posted a YouTube video recorded by someone braver than I. The driver in this video also sounds a bit distressed.
Please don't let me discourage you from this scenic adventure. It gets almost five stars on Trip Adviser from most folks who sincerely enjoy this kind of thing.
A trip to the Colorado Rockies is not in my near future.
Round Mountain BLM Rockhound Area
One of my favorite adventures of our Arizona tour is rockhounding on the Arizona New Mexico border at the Round Mountain Rock Hound Area hosted by the Bureau of Land Management with a few friends.
Fire agate is our goal, but I've been known to haul home about 100 pounds of anything unique and beautiful. The chalcedony is just lying on top of the ground. In some spots, it's so thick that it looks like it snowed. I'm quite an amateur at this and still honing my identification skills.
Most land has private or corporate mineral rights claims, and landowners don't take too kindly to trespassing or collecting things on their property without permission or pay. Therefore, the state of Arizona has, so generously, set aside a chunk of land for free public collecting. They only ask that you don't sell what you find, clean up after yourself, and don't use any large mining or digging equipment. It's set aside for people, like myself, who have a lot of fun finding and collecting the material for a personal collection.
The Drive to the Rock Hound Area
A Scenic Drive
This place is about a four-hour drive from the Phoenix area through the lonely desert. There are no large metropolitan areas along the way to the far eastern side of the state, just some small communities and reservations. The Saguaro cacti are nowhere to be found past the Globe area. I was surprised to see cotton fields along the way.
A 360-degree scan of this place leaves you with the impression that you are in the middle of absolutely nowhere and have the world all to yourself.
We did have to share the space with cows as the nearby Lazy B Ranch uses the land for cattle grazing. Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor was raised on this very ranch and even wrote a book about it, "Growing up on a Cattle Ranch in the American West (2002)."
We also had to share space with several varieties of pit vipers, Gila Monsters, and scorpions, of which we saw none of because it was February and cool enough to keep them in their hibernation phase. I did, however, see a coyote peek at me from around a desert bush.
Two of us wore snake boots. It helped me relax and focus on potential treasures rather than on noxious reptiles.
Gem hunting is big business in Arizona. Tuscon, which is between the rockhound area and Phoenix, annually hosts the most extensive rock show in the world. I prefer to find the stuff myself. There also is a rock shop in the nearby town of Duncan called "Rock-a-Buy." The owner is amiable and offers excellent tips on how and where to find fire agates. He also has a lovely collection of his own to admire, and you might want to grab yourself a little souvenir while you're there.
The final leg of our journey ends at the Simpson Hotel in Duncan, Arizona. This place is where we usually spend the night after a long hard day in the desert searching for treasures. It is a charming and historic, renovated bed and breakfast that offers some extremely reasonably priced room rentals.
The Simpson Hotel
Breakfast is optional. If you want the breakfast, it is $12.00 extra but well worth the added expense. It consists of an all-natural, organic, when possible, meal, with just about everything purchased from local growers and producers. Our breakfast included fresh egg frittata, turkey bacon, fried potatoes, tortillas, and fresh fruit. Unlimited orange juice and coffee are included.
Rural Desert Community
There is a hobby farm at this place, despite it being within city limits. There is a goat, some chickens, and a few random cats. In the morning, the windowed doors at the end of the hall are crowded with both cats and chickens peering into the house, most likely, wondering what's for breakfast.
We had an evening meal at a local and family-owned pizza place called "Humble Pie" just across the street, and I must say it was the best pizza I have ever eaten.
Duncan itself is a small town in Arizona that is only about 15 minutes from the rockhound area and 5 miles from the border of New Mexico. It hosts a little over 600 people and sits along the Gila River from which the Gila monster derived its name.
The Gila monster, a sluggish venomous lizard, and it is exclusive to this region. Interestingly, its venom is the subject of some studies in that it may inhibit the growth of lung cancer tumors.
Duncan has been destroyed twice, once by flood and once by fire, according to Wikipedia.
I hope you have enjoyed the tour and can, someday, partake of some of these lovely offerings in the Grand Canyon state if you already haven't. I also hope to have provided some helpful information should you get the opportunity to do so.
I will continue to add experiences as we further our adventures to new places.
© 2017 Tamarajo