Singapore’s Amazing and Controversial Buddha Tooth Relic Temple

Updated on August 27, 2018
Glenis Rix profile image

In November 2017, the writer flew from London Heathrow to Singapore to visit family who had been living an ex-pat life there for two years.

In November 2017 I flew from the UK for a two-week visit to Singapore. My youngest son and his family had been living there for almost two years and were soon to be repatriated. This last chance to visit them in the Far East coincided with my seventieth birthday. What better way to celebrate--and what better time to meet my youngest grandchild for the first time? Overcoming my dislike of long-distance flights, on a cold and grey morning I embarked from London Heathrow on a fourteen-hour journey to tropical temperatures.

One of the many memorable outings during my stay was a day spent in Chinatown, which included a visit to the splendid Buddha Tooth Relic Temple. I was astonished by the sight of the truly staggering opulence and the lavish quantities of gold that has been incorporated into the building and artefacts.

Entering via the South Bridge Road, known also as the Mountain Gate, we passed through one of the red, lacquered doors which are in the style of the Tang Dynasty of China (618-907). No first-time visitor could fail to be amazed by the impact on the senses of the rich colours, the gold, and the scent of burning incense candles.

The First Hall in the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple


Hundred Dragons Hall and the Universal Wisdom Hall

The Hundred Dragons Hall and the Universal Wisdom Hall occupy the first storey of the temple. The walls of the Universal Wisdom Hall are lined with one hundred Buddha statues, each given a unique name and specific hand signals, called mudras. In the Hundred Dragons Hall a ceiling-mounted keman is framed by the dragons which give the hall its name.

One hundred Buddha statues line this wall on the first floor of the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple. Each individual statue has a name and a specific hand sign, called a mudra.
One hundred Buddha statues line this wall on the first floor of the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple. Each individual statue has a name and a specific hand sign, called a mudra. | Source
Hall of One Hundred Dragons, Buddha Gold Tooth Relic Temple, Singapore
Hall of One Hundred Dragons, Buddha Gold Tooth Relic Temple, Singapore | Source
Statue of Maitreya Bodhisattva in the Hundred Dragons Hall, Singapore
Statue of Maitreya Bodhisattva in the Hundred Dragons Hall, Singapore | Source

Buddhist Monks Offering Their Devotions in the Hundred Dragons Hall


The Sacred Light Hall Houses the Tooth Relic

The centrepiece of the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple is on the fourth floor. It is housed within a stupa made from 402 kg of gold, much of which was melted down from items donated by devotees. Only monks are allowed into the relic chamber, where they conduct daily services. Visitors can view the chamber twice a day from the public viewing area but photography is strictly forbidden.

The Rooftop Garden in the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple

Climb one of the four corner staircases from the fourth floor into a rooftop garden that is an abundance of trees, shrubs and orchids, including Dendrobium Buddha Tooth orchid. The sense of peace in this delightful space is enhanced by the gentle tinkle of the temple winds chimes. Four small pavilions house the Buddhas of the Cardinal points, but the central feature is the Vairocana Buddha Prayer Wheel, the largest prayer wheel in the world.

Pagoda Housing the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple Prayer Wheel

The rooftop garden. A place of calm and respite which houses many rare plants.
The rooftop garden. A place of calm and respite which houses many rare plants. | Source

The World's Largest Buddhist Prayer Wheel

The prayer wheel in the rooftop garden of the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple, Singapore. According to the Buddhist tradition spinning  a prayer wheel will have much the same meritorious effect as orally reciting the prayers.
The prayer wheel in the rooftop garden of the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple, Singapore. According to the Buddhist tradition spinning a prayer wheel will have much the same meritorious effect as orally reciting the prayers. | Source

How the Buddha Tooth Relic Came to be in Singapore

  • The tooth was discovered in Mrauk U in Myanmar in 1980
  • The Venerable Cakkapala, the abbot of the Bandula Monastery, is said to have found it
  • The claim is that it was found within a stupa of solid gold on Bagan Hill during the course of restoration works
  • The relic was enshrined, without publicity, in Bandula Monastery
  • January 2001 the Bandula Monastery, hoping to raise funds, contacted the Venerable Shi Fazhao from the Golden Pagoda Temple in Singapore for assistance
  • August 2002, two Buddha tooth relics, including the Bandula relic, were shown as part of a three-day S$1-million exhibition to mark the Golden Pagoda Temple's 10th anniversary.
  • The exhibition drew over 300,000 visitors
  • Following the exhibition, the Venerable Cakkapala formally gave the Buddha tooth relic to the Venerable Shi, founder of the Metta Welfare Association, on the basis that a monastery would be built to house the relic and receive Buddhist pilgrims.
  • The handover led to plans for a project to build, with the support of the Singapore Tourist Board, which felt that the project would benefit tourism, the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple.
  • May 2004, another exhibition, which drew 600,000 visitors was held. Details were released to the media of the planned temple, its costs, proposed structure and exhibits.
  • January 2005, a thirty-year lease for the 2,700 sq.m. site on South Bridge Road was granted by the Singapore Tourism Board.
  • A fund-raising campaign was launched and in less than three months about 83kg of gold and 10 million Singapore dollars had been donated.
  • May 2007, the management committee for the construction of the Temple revealed to the media that 43 million Singapore dollars had been raised from more than 60,000 donors.
  • Loans were taken out to meet the final cost of S$75 million
  • By 17 May 2008, the temple was complete and a consecration ceremony was held.

Building a stupa of gold is a demonstration of devotion, and devotees believe that by doing such a deed, they will receive the appropriate karmic returns

— Venerable Shi Fazhao

The Origins of Buddhism

  • Gautama Buddha (c.563 BCE- c.480BCE) was an ascetic and sage on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
  • It is thought that he lived and taught mostly in the eastern area of ancient India.
  • Gautama taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism of other spiritual movements common at the time in his part of India.

The Purpose of the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple

The declared purpose of the Temple is the veneration of the relic, the promotion of Buddhist culture, education, and the provision of welfare services to the public.

Controversy Surrounding the Tooth Relic

The authenticity of the relic has been called into question. Dental experts have said that the tooth is too long to be human and is likely to have been that of an animal

To me, it has always been real and I have never questioned its authenticity. They can say all they want. I don't care what they say. If you believe it's real, then it's real

— Venerable Shi

There is no doubt that practising Buddhists believe in the authenticity of the relic. The authenticity or otherwise may be irrelevant to non-Buddhist visitors to the temple. The attraction is the architecture, the images, artefacts and the insight into a culture different from their own. The Buddha Tooth Relic Temple remains one of the many unmissable tourist attractions in Singapore.

Each of us has different views on what is 'real', as it depends on each individual's understanding of Buddhism. While we fully respect the opinions of others, we should stand firm on our own faith towards the sacred relics

— Venerable Shi

What Not to Wear in the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and What Not to Bring

The Buddha Tooth Relic Temple is above things a religious institution deeply important to those following the path of Buddhism and it is a place of pilgrimage for believers. When visiting, tourists should be respectful of the values and customs associated with the Temple. Shorts, skirts and sleeveless/backless tops are not allowed in the building. A shawl will be offered in the entrance hall to anyone who is unsuitably dressed.

Pets and non-vegetarian food are not allowed anywhere on the premises.

Allow a couple of hours to fully appreciate what the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple has to offer. A visit can easily be combined with a stroll around the streets of Chinatown, lunch in the area, and perhaps a visit to the Chinatown Heritage Museum.

Buddha Tooth Relic Temple, South Bridge Road, Singapore:
288 South Bridge Road, Singapore 058840

get directions

Chinatown MRT STATION, Singapore:

get directions

The Chinatown stop on the MRT line takes visitors directly into the heart of the Chinatown area of Singapore

Golden Pagoda Temple, Singapore:
83 Tampines Link Singapore 528740 Tampines Link, Singapore 528740

get directions

Chinatown Heritage Centre and Museum, Singapore:
48 Pagoda Street, Singapore 059207

get directions

Questions & Answers

    © 2018 GlenR


    Submit a Comment

    • Glenis Rix profile imageAUTHOR


      5 months ago from UK

      Hi Lawrence. I share your point of view but I think that as the shrines are there and unlikely to be broken up to provide relief to the poor we might as well appreciate them. It’s amazing what devout people are prepared to give up in order to save themselves in a perceived afterlife.

      Incidentally, I was told that this pariicular shine had glass bottles collected by poor people incorporated into the design of the building.

    • lawrence01 profile image

      Lawrence Hebb 

      5 months ago from Hamilton, New Zealand


      Very interesting, I've been to Islamic shrines and even Christian ones, and they are beautiful, but I always struggle with the wealth shown when there's so much poverty around them.

      Personally, I love the idea that Mother Theresa had when she challenged the Pope to spend some of the riches on a 'home for the poor' in the Vatican itself.

    • Glenis Rix profile imageAUTHOR


      5 months ago from UK

      Mary, I would love to visit Singapore again - there is so much that I didn’t have time to see. But I doubt that another opportunity will arise - my family returned to the UK on Monday at the end of a two-year work placement. It seems that you travel extensively - I fear that I am getting a little too old for long haul now.

    • aesta1 profile image

      Mary Norton 

      5 months ago from Ontario, Canada

      I had been to Singapore several times but have not visited this place. Another reason to go again.

    • Claire-louise profile image

      Claire Raymond 

      7 months ago from UK

      I have to say I am not a religious person, but if I were, Buddhism would be the one for me. The pictures are incredible and everything sounds really magical and fantastic.

    • ChitrangadaSharan profile image

      Chitrangada Sharan 

      7 months ago from New Delhi, India

      Great article, so informative with beautiful pictures!

      I came to know a lot about the Buddhist temple in Singapore. I wish to visit it sometime in future.

      Thanks for sharing the helpful travel details!

    • Glenis Rix profile imageAUTHOR


      7 months ago from UK

      Thank you.

    • Eurofile profile image

      Liz Westwood 

      7 months ago from UK

      This is an interesting and very well illustrated article.

    • MsDora profile image

      Dora Weithers 

      7 months ago from The Caribbean

      Thank you for this interesting story of devotion to a tooth and by extension, devotion to Buddha. The organized ceremonies, the impressive monument and all the beautiful displays speak of their respect and reverence. They certainly provoke my reverence for my God.


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