10 Most Amazing Caves in the World

Marble cave in Patagonia, Chile is one of the most beautiful among its kind in the world.
Marble cave in Patagonia, Chile is one of the most beautiful among its kind in the world. | Source
Sagada cave in the Philippines
Sagada cave in the Philippines | Source

How are caves formed?

Before we can explore these amazing caves, it is important that we understand how they came to be. There are different types of caves in the world. Similarly, there are different ways on how they were formed but for the sake of this hub, we will only dwell on the general process in cave formation..

Cave formation begins when acid rain is absorbed by the ground. Acid rain consist of rainwater mixed with carbon dioxide. As this acid rain travels through the ground, it comes in contact with solid rocks. If the rock is made of limestone or dolomite, the water will react chemically until this rock slowly dissolves and hollow space is formed. As the space becomes bigger water passes through it until it accumulates and becomes a stream or underground river. Erosion and weathering starts which also helps in cave formation. After a thousand years, the hollow space is already big enough for a human to enter. And after a million years, chambers and columns due to stalactite (from the ceiling) and stalagmite (from the ground) formation becomes so spectacular giving birth to these amazing cave systems.


10. The Blue Grotto (Capri, Italy)

The Blue Grotto is an emblem of the island of Capri in Italy. It is a sea cave found in the coast of the island and is well known to all tourists that visit Capri. This cave is so unique because it has a brilliant blue and emerald glow. This spectacular glow comes from two sources. One is the entrance way to the cave which is a small opening where only one rowboat can enter at a time. And the other one is the larger hole underneath the entrance way which is submerged in the water. The entrance way, when viewed from the inside of the cave appears as a brilliant white light just above the water line. The second hole from underneath the water which is the larger source of light gives the blue glow.

Fun trivia:

Cave of giant crystals will not last for long. They are only accessible today because of the pumping operations used by the mining company which keeps them clear of water. Once these operations stop, the cave of crystals will once again be submerged in hot ground water and the crystals will deteriorate in the air.


9. Cave of Crystals (Chihuahua, Mexico)

Miners discovered the cave of swords first in 1910 which is located just above the cave of giant crystals. Here in the cave of swords crystals are much smaller (only about 1 meter long) and the temperature is colder. That maybe the reason why crystals here stopped growing.

The cave of giant crystals on the other hand was discovered in 2000. Its floor is covered with perfectly faceted crystalline blocks. And this cave contains the largest natural Selenite crystals ever found. The largest crystal found here was12 meters in length and 4 meters in diameter and the normal temperature is 50-58 degrees Celsius with 90-99% humidity. Because of this extremely hot temperature, this cave is relatively unexplored and people without proper protection gears can only last a maximum of 10 minutes.

The crystals were formed because there is a magma chamber just below the cave floor. The magma heated the ground water and it saturated numerous minerals including large quantities of gypsum. This hollow space in the cave became filled with saturated gypsum and for 500,000 years the ground water remained at 50 degrees Celsius which allowed the crystals to form and grow to gigantic sizes.


8. Krubera Cave (Abkhazia, Georgia)

Krubera cave is the deepest known cave on Earth discovered in1960 with a depth of more than 2000 meters. Krubera cave is also known as the Voronja cave which means "cave of the crows" in Russian. This name was used in 1980 by speleologists because of a number of crows nesting at the entrance of the cave. The original name krubera was given by Russian speleologists after Alexander Kruber, a noted Russian geographer.

...Other must-see caves

Melissani cave is one of the most beautiful caves in the world
Melissani cave is one of the most beautiful caves in the world | Source
entrance to the real cave...
entrance to the real cave... | Source

7. Fingal's Cave (Staffa, Scotland)

Fingal is a sea cave located on the uninhabited island of Staffa in Scotland. It is formed entirely from basalt columns which are hexagonally jointed within a paleocene lava flow. The cave's size and naturally-arched roof plus the eerie sounds made by the waves above the cave roof is perfect for cathedral-like atmosphere. It's name was derived from a hero on James Macpherson's book Fingal which means "white stranger".

Fingal's  cave
Fingal's cave | Source
Eisriesenwelt Ice Cave (Austria) is the world's largest ice cave...the oldest layer of ice dates back to a thousand years...
Eisriesenwelt Ice Cave (Austria) is the world's largest ice cave...the oldest layer of ice dates back to a thousand years... | Source

6. Eisriesenwelt Ice Cave (Austria)

Eisriesenwelt means World of the ice giants in German and is located in Werfen, Austria. It is a natural limestone ice cave and is the largest of its kind in the world extending 42 kilometers. Tourists traffic reaches 200, 000 every year.

Although the cave measures 42 kilometers in length, only the first kilometer of this cave is covered in ice and is open to tourists. Most of the parts are plain limestone.

Eisriesenwelt was formed by the eroding passageway caused by the Salzach river. The ice formations in the cave were formed by thawing snow into the cave which drained and are froze during winter. Since the entrance into the cave is open all year-round, the chilly winds freezes the snow inside. During summer the ice formations are preserved and not melted because of the chilly winds that circulate inside.

...Other must see caves

Skaftafell Ice cave in Iceland
Skaftafell Ice cave in Iceland | Source
entrance to the cave is navigable by boat only
entrance to the cave is navigable by boat only

5. Puerto Princesa Underground River, Palawan Philippines

Puerto Princesa Subterranean/underground river is located in Palawan, Philippines. It is one of the 7 New Wonders of Nature and is a UNESCO world heritage site. The entrance to this cave is a short hike from a town nearby.

In 2010, a group of environmentalists and geologists discovered that the underground river has a second floor and there are numerous small waterfalls inside the cave. There is also a 300 meter cave dome above the underground river where one can see unbelievable rock formations, large bats, a deep water hole in the river, more river channels, another deep cave and it is also abundant in marine creatures.

The cave is navigable by boat up to 4 km. Deeper part of the cave is impossible to explore due to oxygen deprivation. There are also several large chambers found inside the cave including the 360 meters Italian chamber which is one of the largest cave rooms in the world.


4. Mammoth Cave National Park (Kentucky, US)

Mammoth cave National park is the longest cave system in the world and probably will be the longest for all time which is unlikely to be surpassed. It spans 52 830 hectares which is twice as long as the second longest cave system, Mexico's Sac Actun an under water cave.

The National Park offers several cave tours to tourists and visitors. Numerous notable features of the cave includes the Grand Avenue, Frozen Niagara, and the famous Fat Man's Misery. These attractions are seen on lighted tours which can reach up to 6 hours in length. The cave tours also offers some "wild" caving by venturing away from the developed parts of the cave into muddy crawlspaces and dusty tunnels.

The echo river tours which was once the most famous tour attraction for visitors is no longer open to public for some unidentified reason.


3. Škocjan Cave (Slovenia)

Škocjan Cave is one of the most significant underground phenomena both in the karst region and Slovenia. It is listed as one of the protected sites of UNESCO World Heritage for its exceptional importance. This cave also ranks among the most important caves in the world. International scientific circles also considers it among the natural treasures of the planet.

According to UNESCO the Škocjan Cave is:

  • among the largest underground canyons known worldwide
  • a natural beauty with great aesthetic value
  • diverse ecosystem
  • historically and culturally significant because it was inhabited during prehistoric times
  • perfect example of contact karst

...Other must-see caves

Reedflute cave in China is very colorful and that makes it amazing...
Reedflute cave in China is very colorful and that makes it amazing... | Source

2. Carlsbad Caverns National Park (New Mexico,US)

Carlsbad Caverns National Park sits on top of the limestone rock above the groundwater level. It is one of the most visited caves in the United States reaching 41 million visitors in 2011. It is open all year round except for Christmas days and visitors have the option to either hike their way all the way to the entrance of the cave or use the visitors elevator.

This cavern includes a Big Room which is a big chamber room made of natural limestone and is about 4000 ft long 625 ft wide and 255 ft high at the highest point making it the third largest chamber room in North America and seventh largest in the world.

It offers numerous programs for tourists including the popular Bats flight program where tourists can witness the bats flight from the inside of the cave to outside during sunset and their flight back into the cave before sunrise. Camping is also allowed provided they have a ticket from the National Park center.

Recent discovery gave birth to the Chocolate room and the bottomless pit. The latter was first known to having no bottom because if someone throws a stone into the pit, no sound of the stone hitting the bottom was heard. Later they found out that the pit is only 140 ft deep and its bottom is made of soft dirt. That's the reason why it doesn't make a sound when a stone is thrown in.


1. Waitomo Glowworms Cave (New Zealand)

And the number one spot belongs to the Waitomo Glowworms Cave in New Zealand! This cave is a major tourist attraction and is popular worldwide. The glowworms "arachna luminosa" is only found in New Zealand and they thrive only in this cave. They are just the size of a normal mosquito. And millions of them abound inside the cave. They are monitored closely by a specialist staff from scientific advisory group which uses automated equipment to monitor the cave remotely, including the temperature, the amount of carbon dioxide (needed to maintain the glowworms) and the number of visitors that can enter each day.

The guided tours go into three levels and commences with a boat ride into the underground river where the cave ceiling is lighted solely by these spectacular glow worms.

It's basically the same as watching the night sky full of twinkling stars!!! so Amazing...

spectacular galaxy of glowworms!!!!!
spectacular galaxy of glowworms!!!!! | Source

More by this Author


IslandBites profile image

IslandBites 3 years ago from Puerto Rico

Really beautiful and very interesting! We have some great caves systems here in Puerto Rico. Good hub!

purpleshadow13 profile image

purpleshadow13 3 years ago from Manila, Philippines Author

Thank you.

AK Chenoweth 3 years ago

Beautiful and informative. What amazing natural structures we have in this world. Thank you for posting a great hub! AK

anmurphy7 profile image

anmurphy7 3 years ago from Weston, Florida

Really interesting article! Thanks for sharing. Voted interesting and awesome :)


AvineshP profile image

AvineshP 3 years ago from Chandigarh

After looking at the posted pics, yes, the same question came to my mind as well as how these caves are formed ???? Mother nature has so much to offer us and these caves are a perfect example of it, I have promised myself that I would surely explore these caves (at least the ones shown in the pics).

Best of Luck to me :-)

purpleshadow13 profile image

purpleshadow13 3 years ago from Manila, Philippines Author

Goodluck AvineshP. I know you'd be able to someday...thanks for your comment.

AvineshP profile image

AvineshP 3 years ago from Chandigarh

Yea, thanks purpleshadow....I am an adventure seeker and I am already planning a trip to these caves.

Suhail and my dog profile image

Suhail and my dog 3 years ago from Mississauga, ON

Although I am an outdoorsy guy hiking and trekking with my dog, but I have not been exploring any caves. The only two caves I have visited are Batu cave near KL in Malaysia and caves in Blue Mountains of Ontario, Canada. Your list of caves seems out of this world though. They look gorgeous and your way of writing have made them even more exploration worthy.

Found useful and rated up.

wiserworld profile image

wiserworld 3 years ago

Great summary of the caves. Definitely some for the old bucket list!

Better Yourself profile image

Better Yourself 3 years ago from North Carolina

Wow! I'm in awe of the beauty and uniqueness of each! Great hub, thanks for sharing!

Toytasting profile image

Toytasting 3 years ago from Mumbai

It was amazing to know so much about these caves. Though all are beyond beauty, yet my favorite is the Waitomo Glowworms cave in New Mexico. I would love to go and see this cave sometime.

Thanks for sharing the information. :)

purpleshadow13 profile image

purpleshadow13 3 years ago from Manila, Philippines Author

Same here...Waitomo glowworms cave is also my favorite! Thanks for your comments.

Mel Carriere profile image

Mel Carriere 3 years ago from San Diego California

I am glad you gave a high ranking to my beloved Carlsbad Caverns, which I have visited a few times. Isn't there a cave in Indonesia that is supposed to have the largest single chamber? I forget the name. Happy hubbing and spelunking!

purpleshadow13 profile image

purpleshadow13 3 years ago from Manila, Philippines Author

Hi, I think the cave you are talking about having the largest single chamber is Gua Nasib Bagus (Good luck cave). It contains the Sarawak chamber which is the largest of its kind in the world. However, this cave is not located in Indonesia. It is in Malaysia actually. Anyway, thanks for your comment. Happy Spelunking as well. I'm glad you also like Carlsbad Caverns...

crookedcreekphoto profile image

crookedcreekphoto 3 years ago from Ohio, USA

Great Hub. We're planning on going to Mammoth Caves in the next couple of weeks. We're only about 300 miles from it and never gave it a thought until recently. We've been to a place in Arkansas called Blanchard Caves. It was really cool, not nearly as big as the ones you described in your hub, but it was still fascinating.

SamitaJassi profile image

SamitaJassi 3 years ago from Chandigarh

Wow dear its very interesting and amazing hub.. All the caves are so beautiful. I wish, i can go there

AprilGallagher profile image

AprilGallagher 3 years ago from Athens, Greece

So far I only knew of Slovenia's Škocjan Cave. I didn't know what I was missing. These caves really look out of this world. Thanks for this beautiful hub, great job!

Ramish Ali profile image

Ramish Ali 3 years ago

i have never seen

it is amazing

i wanna go to visit

iguidenetwork profile image

iguidenetwork 3 years ago from Austin, TX

Nature doesn't fail to astound us. These are all amazing caves! Thanks for sharing. One day I'd go to one of those, particularly at the glow worm cave. :)

Stephan 2 years ago

Amazing! is Krubera Cave (Abkhazia, Georgia) deepest-known cave in the world? I saw this here:

purpleshadow13 profile image

purpleshadow13 2 years ago from Manila, Philippines Author

Yes. Indeed Krubera Cave is the deepest known cave on Earth. In fact, Krubera cave remains the only known cave to have exceeded the 2000 meters depth.

Alfin Loencontre profile image

Alfin Loencontre 2 years ago

impressive caves.

Your hubs are awesome, congratulations.

purpleshadow13 profile image

purpleshadow13 2 years ago from Manila, Philippines Author

Thank you Alfin...Your comment made me feel more inspired to write more...:)

sherwani profile image

sherwani 2 years ago from Karachi

So, off to New Zealand. Who is with me? Thanks for a lovely article

purpleshadow13 profile image

purpleshadow13 2 years ago from Manila, Philippines Author

You're welcome Sherwani...:)

erorantes profile image

erorantes 2 years ago from Miami Florida

I like your caves Mr. Purpleshadow13. They amazingly beautiful. I am happy for you that you found them. I can only imagen . The joy, you felt walking inside the cave for the first time. Thank you for sharing your knowledge. I like your hub.

purpleshadow13 profile image

purpleshadow13 2 years ago from Manila, Philippines Author

Hi erorantes...thank you for taking the time to comment on this the way i am ms purpleshadow13...not mr...:):):) but it is ok...have a good day!

tazzytamar profile image

tazzytamar 2 years ago from chichester

Stunning caves! They have always fascinated me and I would love to see the ones on this list one day...

Fantastic hub! Voted up :)

erorantes profile image

erorantes 2 years ago from Miami Florida

I am sorry for the gender confusion. You too have a wonderful day and happy Hollydays. I love your hub. The caves are amazing.

purpleshadow13 profile image

purpleshadow13 2 years ago from Manila, Philippines Author

Thanks Tazzytamar! :)

purpleshadow13 profile image

purpleshadow13 2 years ago from Manila, Philippines Author

No worries erorantes...have a good day too...and More Power! :)

escapology profile image

escapology 23 months ago from Cosmopolitan

Hi Purpleshadow,

that's a cool write up and I am happy to see the Puerto Princessa Underground River in the list. I spent traveling 3 months across the Philippines and that cave was a definite highlight. Amongst many others in that country. Cheers for the hub .... All the best!

Sam Shepards profile image

Sam Shepards 8 months ago from Europe

Very nice. Will visit some ice caves in Iceland next month. Looking forward to it. Have done a lot of caves and caving, but ice caves is completely new to me. Woohooo :)

kamyar 4 months ago

The thing that amazed me was that.. there was no name of "Ali Sadr" Cave"(world's largest water cave) in Hamadan-Iran.

Google it to know what I'm saying.

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    Jennifer Gonzales (purpleshadow13)90 Followers
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    Jenny is a girl who loves many things. She loves street foods, traveling, nature, music, cats and dogs! She's crazy about purple & writing!

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