Proud to be an engineer, Mazlan loves to share the engineering marvels in Asia and other parts of the world.
Top Rated Asian Subway
In the earlier part of this series, we read how Tokyo Subway and Hong Kong MTR put in place subway services that are rated highly not only by locals and tourists but also by international rating agencies and travel consultants.
Seoul Subway and Taipei MRT (Metro) are the other Asian subways that are ranked highly in terms of reliability, efficiency, safety, and cleanliness.
Let's find out why.
Seoul Metropolitan Subway (Lines 1 - 9)
Seoul's Metropolitan subway network is the most extensive in the world. With 17 lines, it connects almost all parts of Seoul and the suburbs. If this is not enough, nine new subway lines and one new extension will be added to the existing line. If the plan goes ahead, Seoul citizens will have only a ten-minute traveling distance to the nearest station!
Seoul's subway is also the world’s largest in terms of passenger-track length.
Operated by four Government-owned rail operators and other small private rapid transit operators, it has a staggering combined daily ridership of more than 3 billion (yes, with a 'b')
For this article, we will concentrate on the network for lines 1 to 9 that covers Seoul Metropolitan, as a direct comparison to the other subways in other parts of Asia.
Seoul Subway Map Looks Complicated But Color Coded For Convenience
Seoul Subway Express Train
Construction works for Seoul subway system began in 1971 and opened for commercial operation on August 15th, 1974. The subway network has now expanded to 17 lines with Lines 1-9 covering the Seoul Metropolitan area.
These are operated by four different companies, which are:
- Seoul Metropolitan Subway Corporation or Seoul Metro, which operates part of line 1 - 4
- Korail (Korea Railroad, formerly Korean National Railroad), which runs the other parts of line 1, 3 & 4
- Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation (SMRT), which runs lines 5 - 8
- Seoul Metro Line 9 Corporation, a private company which runs line 9. It connects the east and west part of Seoul area located south of the Han river. This makes line 9 the country's first privately operated subway line. With its triple track, it has the first express train service in Seoul.
UPDATE Jan 2018: Seoul Metro and Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation are now merged on 31 May 2017, and known as Seoul Metro. It now operates Lines 1 through 8 and the 2nd stage section of Line 9. These combined lines mean a total of 307 stations covering 331.5 km (206.0 miles) of track-line and a staggering ridership of more than 3 billion.
Despite its massive networks and high daily ridership, Seoul subway is not only efficient and reliable but clean. It is easy to use and has high service frequency, which is rated highly by many travel experts and transportation consultants.
Seoul Subway's Facilities
Commuter comfort and other material things are just as important. Hence, the newer train carriages are spacious to allow for quicker access on and off the train. But not for the older trains, which will soon be replaced with newer models.
The carriages are air-conditioned during summer. There are also carriages with a lower level of air-conditioning for people who cannot stand the cold. If you happen to be in that carriage on a hot summer day, be ready to sweat!
Other creature comforts when traveling on Seoul subway are:
- Heated passenger seats in the winter
- TV signal for cell phones
- 4G Wi-Fi
- Display TV screen (in newer stations, you get international news and sports highlights, stock prices, and service announcements.)
- All announcements and signage are in both Korean and English at all stations
- For the convenience of foreign commuters, stations that lead to tourist areas will have additional announcements in Japanese and Chinese.
- Travel time between subway stations is only two to three minutes.
- For a refund on your travel card deposit, insert the card into the machine that says, "Deposit Refund Device," located after the turnstile at your destination
- Use the Seoul Subway Digital map for the best route to your destination. It also gives the travel time, fare, the number of station stops, transfer station, and facilities available at the station. The Seoul subway map can also be downloaded for iPhone and Androids phones.
- Free cell-phone charging service.
- Nursing space inside the Public Service center at most stations. It has a baby bed, sofa, and coffee pot.
Seoul Subway Hours
Depending on the line, the subway starts at 5.30 am and ends at midnight.
Which Travel Card to Use for Seoul's Subway
Another factor for its high ranking is its travel card to pay for the ride.
You can still buy a single-ride ticket but the hassle of joining the queue and putting the money into the vending machine can be time-consuming.
With the rechargeable travel card, you don't have to go through this hassle and it works out cheaper.
But which card to use?
If your stay in Seoul is more than four days, you are better off with the T-money card. You can use them on buses, trams, taxis and at convenience stores. Once you are done with this T-money card, you get the remaining balance, less 500 won for service charges. By the way, the subway fare is cheaper by 100 won when you use T-money.
Tip: reload in small amount only with total card value not in excess of 50,000 won when you apply for a refund. If it is in excess of 50,000 won, the refund process is complicated and time-consuming.
Seoul City Pass
Otherwise, get the 1-day, 2-day, or 3-day Seoul City Pass that currently sells for 15,000, 25,000 and 50,000 won (US $14.54, US $24.23, US$48.45) respectively. With this card, you can travel on the bus and subway up to 20 times a day, irrespective of the travel distance. In addition, you can use it on the Seoul City Tour Bus that takes you to all the popular tourist sites, as many times as you like. The only caveat is, it is not applicable on the Red Bus, Gyeonggi Bus, or Incheon Bus. For visitors on a short stay, this is a better bet.
Tips on How to Ride Seoul Subway
Despite the tough-looking Seoul subway map. its subway is not that complicated and easy to learn. The following tips will help you learn faster.
- Route maps above the train door show white dots for doors that open on the right and yellow dots for doors that open on the left.
- To go through the turnstile, swipe your card but at Line 9, it is a free transfer.
- For some stations, you have to walk a bit longer distance for the train transfer. So allow sufficient time for this walk.
- Do not forget to tap your travel card on the sensors whenever you exit the subway or getting off the bus. Otherwise, you will be charged twice the next time you use the subway or bus.
- The transfer must be within 30 minutes from the time you scan your transit card at the exit of the last subway station or bus. Between 9 pm and 7 am you have an hour to do the transfer.
- Seoul Metro operates part of lines 1 - 4, which are the oldest subway lines. Some of their stations are cramped and poorly ventilated, and their trains are slower.
- Lines 5 - 8 are newer lines with more spacious and airier subway stations. The trains also run faster.
- Line 9 has the best stations and trains.
Seoul Metro Station Naming Rights
As an additional source of revenue, Seoul Metro signed contracts with several companies for their subway station naming rights. So, Apgujeong Station on the line No.3 is now named as 'Hyundai Department Store Apgujeong Station' and 'Kangbuk Samsung Hospital' will be added to Seodaemun Station etc.
The cost for this naming rights varies with the Seodaemun Station at KRW 180 million (USD 152,000) being the least expensive, and Euljiro 1-ga Station as the most expensive at KRW 340 million.
Comparison of Train Frequency and Cheapest Single Ride Ticket
|City||Train Frequency||Cheapest Adult Single Journey Ticket (exclude special concession rate)|
2-10 mins depending on the hour
1,250 won (US$1.16)
2 - 4 mins interval at peak hours. 4-7 mins during off-peak hours
2-3 mins at rush hours. Up to 10 mins at off hours
varies from 1-2 mins depending on hours
1min 49sec at peak hours and 5-15 mins at off peak
varies 4-20 mins depending on hours
2 mins during peak hours. 8-10 mins on off peak hours
1.70 Euro (US$2.35)
1-3 mins depending on the hours
30 RUB (US$0.84)
Taipei MRT branded as Taipei Metro opened on March 28th, 1996, much later than the other three subway networks In Seoul, Hong Kon, and Tokyo. It has newer trains and the routes are not as complicated as in Seoul or Tokyo.
With an average daily ridership of only 2.04 million per day (an annual ridership of 746m - Jan to Dec 2017 statistic), it is the least busy of the four subway networks and not as crowded. So, during peak hours you still have a decent standing space.
It currently operates from 6 am to midnight and uses the downtime for maintenance. It has only 3.5 hours to do this, as the last train arrives at the depot at 1:30 am, and at 5 am tracks are inspected before service starts.
Taipei MRT Line
Taipei MRT line is not referred to by color name but by their terminal station name. For tourists, this can be difficult. So, the red line is named Tamsui–Xinyi line that serves Tamsui, Beitou, Shilin, Datong, Zhongshan, Zhongzheng, Daan, and Xinyi area.
Taipei MRT Map
Taipei MRT Current & Future Expansion Plans
Taipei Rapid Transit Corporation runs Taipei Metro, which is 99.64% owned by various government agencies. It also operates the local bus services.
The first stage of the Taipei subway network spans over 78.3 miles (126 km) on 11 lines and has 109 stations. These are in operation since early 1996.
As of December 2017, it has now increased to 117 stations and 131.1 km (81.5 miles) of track line.
Future expansion will increase stations and track line to handle up to 3.6 million riders per day.
Facilities at Taipei MRT Stations; Responding to Commuters' Needs
Taipei Metro has a customer satisfaction level of 95.9% (2017 statistic) and these are due to its excellent customer service and facilities for commuters:
- Train punctuality averages at an impressive 99.75%, slightly below Hong Kong which had 99.9% on-time performance (2017 figure)
- Toilets at every station that work and clean, with additional facilities such as breastfeeding rooms
- "Anti-peeping" measures in ladies' toilets!
- Special waiting room for women commuters, especially for night time travel
- Also for the ladies, intercoms in the trains and on platforms
- Again for the ladies, when manpower permits, women exiting the station can be escorted to the taxi stand (taxi numbers will be recorded)
- Free Wi-Fi
- Free charging stations for cell phones and computers (currently more than 260 charging stations)
- Announcements are in Mandarin, Hakka, Taiwanese, and English. Unlike most subway announcements, these are crystal clear.
- Big signage (in Chinese and English) at platforms to help commuters with directions and other information.
- Quick transfers
- Barrier-free station environment with special consideration for the visually impaired
- 12,272 bicycle rack spaces (2016 figures) are provided at Taipei Metro stations and bicycles are allowed on board the trains on weekends and public holidays. This is to encourage Taipei residents to cycle rather than drive or use taxis on these days
- To expedite passenger movement, speed gates instead of turnstiles are installed, and for a single journey, the magnetic cards are replaced with RFID tokens.
- Commuters who share their birthday with the Taipei Metro enjoyed free travel on 28 March and are allowed to bring a friend.
Most of Taipei's houses and workplaces are a maximum of 20 minutes' walk from an MRT station.
Taipei Metro Community Service
During upgrading of station elevators, Taipei MRT used buses equipped with automated wheelchair lift platforms to ferry mobility-impaired passengers to nearby Metro stations, free of charge. These small details matter to commuters.
Taipei Metro is also mindful of the community and its neighborhood. It installed acoustics barriers along the medium and high-capacity tracks to reduce the ambient noise level by an average of 6-10 dB for residents along its track routes.
In addition, Taipei Metro organized regular station open houses for nearby residents, schools, and other community associations. These interactions help the public understand the station operations during normal and emergency times. These activities also create rapport between station staff and the communities.
Taipei MRT Customer Service Hotline
To remain accessible to public complaints, grievances, or gratitude, Taipei Metro put in place a 24-hour customer service hotline. Commuters can also e-mail their complaints or send them to the Mayor's mailbox. Alternatively, they can fill in the passenger comment forms available at all Metro stations.
Taipei MRT Station Ticket
One of the biggest hassles is to buy the right ticket. Here's a quick guide to solving this problem.
Subway Tickets for Taipei MRT
If you don't use the subway that often, buy the single journey ticket, which cost between NT$20 to NT$65 (US$0.66 - US$2.15) depending on the destination distance. The ticket is in the form of an RFID token that you scan as you enter the gate, and deposit into a slot at the exit gate.
For a short stay but with lots of traveling, buy the one-day pass at NT$150 (US$4.95) that gives you unlimited travels on the subway within a day.
If your stay is longer and you do a lot of traveling, then the EasyCard is cheaper, which gives you a 20% discount on the fare. The card sells for NT$500 (US$16.52) of which NT$100 (US$3.30) is a deposit. The deposit and any unused portion will be refunded when you return the card. You can also use this card on the bus and at certain car parks. If your transfer from the subway to a bus (or vice-versa) is within two hours, you pay half of the bus/subway fare.
Tips on Taipei Metro
- You cannot use cell phones in the first and last coaches of the train.
- Smoking, drinking, and chewing gum are not allowed in the stations or train coaches
- Pets are allowed but must be in hand-carry cages/bags
- Wall maps (In Chinese & English) at all MRT stations show the attractions in the neighborhood
- Tickets are valid only on the day of purchase (except the EasyCard)
- If you like Hello Kitty, Taipei Metro has the Hello Kitty train on its brown MRT line.
Taipei Metro Financial Performance
Based on the current 2016 Annual Report, Taipei Metro had a proﬁt before tax of NT$1.51 billion (with a 'b') i.e. US$51.7 million, and after-tax net profit of NT$1.26 billion based on the total revenue of NT$19.31 billion.
These are from its subway and bus services, its affiliated businesses from car parks, stores at stations and underground shopping malls, merchandises, and advertisements.
It may not be as impressive as Hong Kong's financial performance (for almost similar track length), but impressive enough for any transport operators.
Guide on How to Use Taipei Metro
Seoul Subway vs. Taipei Metro
Top Service from Asian Subway Operators
We read how Seoul, Taipei and in the earlier series, Tokyo, and Hong Kong put in place first-class services for efficiency, reliability, safety, and cleanliness.
Their services are affordable and most important of all, they listen to their customers, the commuters. The subway is an integral part of the daily activities in these cities and the commuters expect high levels of safety and punctuality on a daily basis.
These Asian subway operators not only generate profits to shareholders but play responsible social roles for stakeholders and the communities.
Infrastructure and Economic Growth
Economic growth in any country relies on many factors. Efficient and reliable transportation services and its easy accessibility are part of these factors. Likewise, for a clean, safe and reasonably priced transportation.
Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue and Dr. Theo Notteboom in their report showed the important relationship between a good quality transport infrastructure and economic development.
These are some of the reasons why cities such as Hong Kong and Tokyo succeed as important global financial centers.
Best Subway In The World
Beijing, Shanghai, Singapore, and Osaka are other Asian cities that are fast catching up in excellent subway services. Soon, most of the top ten subways in the world will be from Asia.
Based on the July 2017 CNN travel rankings, these are their 9 best subway in the world but no criteria were given on how they arrived at this listing:
- Hong Kong MTR
- Seoul Metro
- Singapore MRT
- London Underground
- Paris Metro
- Madrid Metro
- New York City MTA
- Tokyo Metro
- Guangzhou Metro (China)
Do you agree with this?
© 2014 Mazlan
Mazlan (author) from Malaysia on February 04, 2019:
Unown, thank you for highlighting this Chengdu station, which started operation (line 1) in 2010.
You are right. China is catching up and have built impressive infrastructures not just highways and subways but also airports.
I might write a separate article just on China subway, thanks to you for giving this inspiration.
Have a great Lunar Holiday and Happy Chinese New Year.
Unown on February 04, 2019:
I think the best system in Asia would probably be Chengdu Metro. Plenty of other Chinese metros are also very good.
Mazlan (author) from Malaysia on July 22, 2015:
Hi James. It is a tough choice. I do agree with you that Taipei is less congested and easier to use and navigate compared to Seoul. Thanks for reading and sharing your thoughts.
Mazlan (author) from Malaysia on June 02, 2015:
Hi Kristen Howe, Venkatachari M and mikeydcarroll67 , thanks for the visit and your comments and compliments.
mikeydcarroll67, Thanks for sharing your experience on Seoul subway. I too, had a pleasant experience on Seoul Subway. It was years ago and it was almost midnight. I wasn't sure if it was safe for me to take the late night subway ride or to take a cab instead. I decided on the subway and I was surprised that it was clean, brightly lighted and you feel safe and secure.
mikeydcarroll67 on May 31, 2015:
I can definitely vouch for the Seoul Metro System. It was a fairly quick way to get around town and offers the location in Korean and English for the riders!
Venkatachari M from Hyderabad, India on May 31, 2015:
Very interesting hub. It is a fully detailed hub with all related information and beautiful images. Voted up.
Kristen Howe from Northeast Ohio on May 31, 2015:
This is a great hub with useful info on riding the Seoul subway. Congrats on HOTD! Voted up!
Nice Articles! Two Thumb! on May 07, 2015:
Mazlan (author) from Malaysia on September 13, 2014:
Hi HSchneider, your article on American Exceptionalism may provide answer to this wish of yours. It is a sad thing if they don't improve it as infrasture developments were one of the key components that spurred the American economy in the past.
Thanks for dropping by and the compliment.
Hi tom yam. Yes, London's subway is expensive for single ride, but even with the oyster card, the ride is still expensive. London is now rated as having the most expensive subway with ticket prices being the highest in the world.
I have not used the Bangkok skytrain before, but I am sure it is far better than being in the Bangkok city traffic!
Russell Pittock from Nakon Sawan Province, Thailand. on September 12, 2014:
So London is by far the most expensive system to use. No surprise there.
Here in Bangkok I often use the BTS (skytrain) It's quick and well priced. As an alternative to the traffic jams below it wins out every time.
Howard Schneider from Parsippany, New Jersey on September 12, 2014:
Excellent Hub, Greatstuff. These subway systems are amazing. I wish my political and business leaders in the United States would put the same effort and talent into improving our very old systems.
Mazlan (author) from Malaysia on May 06, 2014:
one2get2no, thanks for the vote and leaving your comment. Have a great day.
Mazlan (author) from Malaysia on May 06, 2014:
raymondphilippe, having a sophisticated subway system is not everything. Your country is beautiful in so many ways and is on top of my list of favorite countries.
Raymond Philippe from The Netherlands on May 04, 2014:
When I read interesting hubs like these I realize how small the country I live in is in many ways. The scale of these transport systems is mind boggling too me.
Philip Cooper from Olney on April 29, 2014:
Love this hub...voted up.