First off, be sure to reserve your trip to Alcatraz ASAP. As far as I know, there are usually (if ever) last minute tickets. The GG Bridge can be easily accessed by public transportation, or Uber or Lyft. It's quite an experience, and you can walk out onto the bridge safely on the pedestrian side. There is also a side for bikes. Both are safe and separate from auto traffic. Personally, my favorite way to go is by bike. You can start at the Ferry Building (downtown, at the foot of Market Street, the main street here), rent a bike and take a leisurely ride along the Embarcadero and see the bay and a lot of attractions along the way. I'm seventy-four and have no problem with this ride. There are only two hills and if you can't bike up, just walk the bike, and neither are THAT bad. Download it to your smartphone and take it along. After crossing the bridge, you can ride down a big hill into Sausalito and take a ferry back, where you can return your bike. The whole thing takes about 3-4 hours.
I like to grab a burger in Sausalito before heading back, but there are other options. It's fun, unique and a great way to see more. Golf is not my thing, so I'm not sure what to recommend there. I'm from Monterey, which is a 2-hour drive down Highway 1 (a beautiful ride) and there are a lot of famous golf courses there. A lot of people stay in the Fisherman's Wharf area which is closer to the bridge and Alcatraz boats, but most of us locals don't love that part of town. I recommend you think of what you're doing, then decide. I prefer downtown, but it's a completely different scene. More about shopping and eating. It's hard to go wrong, because our entire city is only 7 miles by 7 miles, and there are streetcars and cable cars running between both areas. It's easy to get around here, so you won't feel stuck, regardless of there, you stay. I hope this helps. I'm not sure when you're planning to come, but bring layers, as the weather changes a lot. A few days ago it was pouring rain and the last couple days it's been clear, blue skies, but in the high 40s. Plan to have a wonderful time.